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Pustevansker og tung pust hos voksne

Sist oppdatert: Sist revidert:
Sist revidert av:

  1. Parshall MB, Schwartzstein RM, Adams L, et al; American Thoracic Society Committee on Dyspnea. An official American Thoracic Society statement: update on the mechanisms, assessment, and management of dyspnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;185:435-452. PubMed  
  2. Budhwar N, Syed Z. Chronic Dyspnea: Diagnosis and Evaluation. Am Fam Physician. 2020;101(9):542-548. PubMed  
  3. Mahler DA. Evaluation of dyspnea in the elderly. Clin Geriatr Med. 2017;33(4):503–521. PMID: 28991647 PubMed  
  4. Pesola GR, Ahsan H. Dyspnea as an independent predictor of mortality. Clin Respir J. 2016;10(2):142–152. PMID: 25070878 PubMed  
  5. Systemisk mastocytose. Senter for sjeldne diagnoser, Oslo universitetssykehus, 2012.
  6. Roy CL, Minor MA, Brookhart MA, et al. Does this patient with a pericardial effusion have cardiac tamponade? JAMA. 2007;297:1810-1818. PubMed  
  7. Broekhuizen BD, Sachs AP, Oostvogels R, et al. The diagnostic value of history and physical examination for COPD in suspected or known cases: a systematic review. Fam Pract. 2009;26:260-268. PubMed  
  8. Wang CS, FitzGerald JM, Schulzer M, Mak E, Ayas NT. Does this dyspneic patient in the emergency department have congestive heart failure? JAMA 2005; 294: 1944-56. Journal of the American Medical Association  
  9. Griffiths TL, Nassar M, Soubani AO. Pulmonary manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Expert Rev Respir Med. 2020;14(8):767-775. PubMed  
  10. Sarkar S, Amelung PJ. Evaluation of the dyspneic patient in the office. Prim Care. 2006;33(3):643–657. PMID: 17088153 PubMed  
  11. Wahls SA. Causes and evaluation of chronic dyspnea. Am Fam Physician 2012; 86: 173-80. American Family Physician  
  12. Ponikowski P, Voors AA, Anker SD, et al.; ESC Scientific Document Group. 2016 ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure: The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) developed with the special contribution of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC published correction appears in Eur Heart J. 2018;39(10):860. Eur Heart J. 2016;37(27):2129–2200. PMID: 27207191 PubMed  
  13. Gartlehner G, Wagner G, Affengruber L. et al. Point-of-care ultrasonography in patients with acute dyspnea: An evidence report for a clinical practice guideline by the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med 2021. PMID: 33900798 PubMed  
  14. Qaseem A, Etxeandia-Ikobaltzeta I, Mustafa RA, et al. Appropriate use of point-of-care ultrasonography in patients with acute dyspnea in emergency department or inpatient settings: A clinical guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med 2021. PMID: 33900792 PubMed  
  15. Trinquart L, Ray P, Riou B, et al. Natriuretic peptide testing in EDs for managing acute dyspnea: a meta-analysis. Am J Emerg Med. 2011;29:757-767. PubMed  
  • Terje Johannessen, professor i allmennmedisin, Trondheim
  • Tore Amundsen, spesialist i indremedisin, lungesykdommer og blodsykdommer, overlege Lungemedisinsk avdeling, St. Olavs hospital og professor ved ISB, DMF, NTNU

Tidligere fagmedarbeidere

  • Hasse Melbye, spesialist i allmennmedisin og førsteamanuensis ved Institutt for samfunnsmedisin, Universitetet i Tromsø