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Underernæring

Sist revidert:
Sist revidert av:


  • Helsedirektoratet. Nasjonale faglige retningslinjer for forebygging og behandling av underernæring. 2015.
  1. Lochs H, Allison SP, Meier R, Pirlich M, Kondrup J, Schneider S, et al. Introductory to the ESPEN Guidelines on Enteral Nutrition: Terminology, definitions and general topics. Clin Nutr 2006; 25: 180-6. PubMed  
  2. Kubrak C, Jensen L. Malnutrition in acute care patients: a narrative review. Int J Nurs Stud 2007; 44: 1036-54. PubMed  
  3. Stratton RJ, Elia M, Green CJ. Disease related malnutrition: An evidence base approach to treatment. Wallingford, United Kingdom: CABI publishing; 2003.
  4. Food and nutritional care in hospitals: How to prevent undernutrition. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. Publishing; 2002.
  5. Når matinntaket blir for lite... Oslo: Sosial- og helsedirektoratet; 2006. IS-1327.
  6. Fernandes AC, Bezerra OM. Nutrition therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and related nutritional complications. J Bras Pneumol 2006; 32: 461-71. PubMed  
  7. Beck AM, Ingerslev JK, Gottrup F. Nutrition and pressure ulcers among old people. Ugeskr Laeger 2006; 168: 3514-6. PubMed  
  8. Avenell A, Handoll HHG. Nutritional supplementation for hip fracture aftercare in older people. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD001880. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001880.pub5. DOI  
  9. Guigoz Y. The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) review of the literature--What does it tell us? J Nutr Health Aging 2006; 10: 466-85. PubMed  
  10. van Wayenburg CA, van de Laar FA, van Weel C, van Staveren WA, van Binsbergen JJ. Nutritional deficiency in general practice: a systematic review. Eur J Clin Nutr 2005; 59 (Suppl 1): S81-S87.
  11. Sørbye LW. Hjemmetjenester til eldre i Bærum og Ullern. Sammenlignende data fra AdHOC studiet. Oslo: Diakonhjemmets høgskole; 2003.
  12. Stratton R.J., Elia M. A reviewe of reviews: A new look at the evidence for oral nutritional supplements in clinical practice. Clin Nutr Supplement 2007; 2: 5-23. PubMed  
  13. Sorbye LW, Schroll M, Finne SH, Jonsson PV, Topinkova E, Ljunggren G, et al. Unintended Weight Loss in the Elderly Living at Home: the Aged in Home Care Project (AdHOC). J Nutr Health Aging 2008; 12: 10-6. PubMed  
  14. Mowe M, Diep L, Bohmer T. Greater seven-year survival in very aged patients with body mass index between 24 and 26 kg/m2. J Am Geriatr Soc 2008; 56: 359-60. PubMed  
  15. Kyle UG, Genton L, Pichard C. Hospital length of stay and nutritional status. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2005; 8: 397-402. PubMed  
  16. Bruun LI, Bosaeus I, Bergstad I, Nygaard K. Prevalence of malnutrition in surgical patients: evaluation of nutritional support and documentation. Clin Nutr 1999; 18: 141-7. PubMed  
  17. Russell CA. The impact of healthcare costs and economic considerations for the use of oral nutritional supplements. Clin Nutr Supplement 2007; 2: 25-32. PubMed  
  18. Amaral TF, Matos LC, Tavares MM, Subtil A, Martins R, Nazare M, et al. The economic impact of diseaserelated malnutrition at hospital admission. Clin Nutr 2007; 26: 778-84. PubMed  
  19. Elia M. Nutrition and health economics. Nutrition 2006; 22: 576-8. PubMed  
  20. Mowe M, Bosaeus I, Rasmussen HH, Kondrup J, Unosson M, Irtun O. Nutritional routines and attitudes among doctors and nurses in Scandinavia: a questionnaire based survey. Clin Nutr 2006; 25: 524-32. PubMed  
  21. Kruizenga HM, Van Tulder MW, Seidell JC, Thijs A, Ader HJ, Van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren MA. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of early screening and treatment of malnourished patients. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 82: 1082-9. PubMed  
  22. Johansen N, Kondrup J, Plum LM, Bak L, Norregaard P, Bunch E, et al. Effect of nutritional support on clinical outcome in patients at nutritional risk. Clin Nutr 2004; 23: 539-50. PubMed  
  23. Collins N. Protein-energy malnutrition and involuntary weight loss: nutritional and pharmacological strategies to enhance wound healing. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2003; 4: 1121-40. PubMed  
  24. Stratton RJ, Hackston A, Longmore D, Dixon R, Price S, Stroud M, et al. Malnutrition in hospital outpatients and inpatients: prevalence, concurrent validity and ease of use of he 'malnutrition universal screening tool' ('MUST') for adults. Br J Nutr 2004; 92: 799-808. PubMed  
  25. Kondrup J, Allison SP, Elia M, Vellas B, Plauth M. ESPEN guidelines for nutrition screening 2002. Clin Nutr 2003; 22: 415-21. PubMed  
  26. Sosial- og helsedirektoratet, inventor; Ernæringsjournalen. 2006.
  27. Boullata J, Williams J, Cottrell F, Hudson L, Compher C. Accurate determination of energy needs in hospitalized patients. J Am Diet Assoc 2007; 107: 393-401. PubMed  
  28. St Onge M, Mignault D, Allison DB, Rabasa-Lhoret R. Evaluation of a portable device to measure daily energy expenditure in free-living adults. Am J Clin Nutr 2007; 85: 742-9. PubMed  
  29. Herke M, Fink A, Langer G, Wustmann T, Watzke S, Hanff AM, Burckhardt M. Environmental and behavioural modifications for improving food and fluid intake in people with dementia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2018, Issue 7. Art. No.: CD011542. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011542.pub2 DOI  
  30. Ravasco P, Monteiro-Grillo I, Vidal PM, Camilo ME. Dietary counseling improves patient outcomes: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial in colorectal cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23: 1431-8. PubMed  
  31. Ravasco P, Monteiro-Grillo I, Marques VP, Camilo ME. Impact of nutrition on outcome: a prospective randomized controlled trial in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy. Head Neck 2005; 27: 659-68. PubMed  
  32. McCarthy D, Weihofen D. The effect of nutritional supplements on food intake in patients undergoing radiotherapy. Oncol Nurs Forum 1999; 26: 897-900. PubMed  
  33. Baldwin C, Parsons TJ. Dietary advice and nutritional supplements in the management of illness-related malnutrition: systematic review. Clin Nutr 2004; 23: 1267-79. PubMed  
  34. Nursing interventions to minimise undernutrition in older patients in hospital. Nurs Stand 2008; 22: 35-40. PubMed  
  35. Milne AC, Potter J, Vivanti A, Avenell A. Protein and energy supplementation in elderly people at risk from malnutrition. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD003288. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003288.pub3. DOI  
  36. Plonk WM, Jr., Arnold RM. Terminal care: the last weeks of life. J Palliat Med 2005; 8: 1042-54. PubMed  
  37. Nordoy T, Thoresen L, Kvikstad A, Svensen R. Treatment with nutrition and fluids in patients with non-curable cancer.. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2006; 126: 624-7. Tidsskrift for Den norske legeforening  
  38. Mehanna HM, Moledina J, Travis J. Refeeding syndrome: what it is, and how to prevent and treat it. BMJ 2008; 336: 1495-8. British Medical Journal  
  39. Huffman GB. Evaluating and treating unintentional weight loss in the elderly. Am Fam Physician 2002; 65: 640-50. American Family Physician  
  • Terje Johannessen, professor i allmennmedisin, Trondheim (tilpasning til NEL)