Hopp til hovedinnhold

Brystkreft, en oversikt

Brystkreft er den hyppigst forekommende kreftformen i den vestlige verden. Prognoser viser at behandlingen gir stadig bedre resultater. Ni av ti er fortsatt i live fem år etter at diagnosen er stilt.

Sist revidert:

QR
Del pasientinformasjon

Den ligger åpent tilgjengelig på NHI.no sammen annen relevant informasjon

https://nhi.no/sykdommer/kreft/brystkreft/brystkreft-en-oversikt/ 

Hva er brystkreft?

Hva er årsaken til brystkreft?

Hvordan stilles diagnosen brystkreft?

Hvordan behandles brystkreft?

Hvordan er langtidsutsiktene ved brystkreft?

Reaksjoner på diagnosen

Økonomiske støtteordninger

Vil du vite mer?

Kilder

Referanser

Dette dokumentet er basert på det profesjonelle dokumentet Brystkreft. Referanselisten for dette dokumentet vises nedenfor.

  1. Helsedirektoratet. Nasjonalt handlingsprogram med retningslinjer for diagnostikk, behandling og oppfølging av pasienter med brystkreft. Oslo: Helsedirektoratet; 2020. helsedirektoratet.no 
  2. Kreftregisteret. Cancer in Norway 2020. Sept 2021. www.kreftregisteret.no 
  3. Kuchenbaecker KB, Hopper JL, Barnes DR et al. Risks of Breast, Ovarian, and Contralateral Breast Cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers. JAMA 2017; 317: 2402-16. pmid:28632866 PubMed 
  4. Møller P, Stormorken A, Holmen MM et al. The clinical utility of genetic testing in breast cancer kindreds: a prospective study in families without a demonstrable BRCA mutation. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2014; 144: 607-14. pmid:24619173 PubMed 
  5. Shiovitz S, Korde LA. Genetics of breast cancer: a topic in evolution. Ann Oncol 2015; 26: 1291-99. pmid:25605744 PubMed 
  6. Helsedirektoratet. Seneffekter etter kreftbehandling. Faglige råd. Oslo: Helsedirektoratet; 2017. IS-2551 helsedirektoratet.no 
  7. Pinkerton JAV, Aguirre FS, Blake J et al. The 2017 hormone therapy position statement of the North American Menopause Society. Menopause. 2017 Jul 1;24(7):728-753. PMID: 28650869 PubMed 
  8. Chlebowski RT, Anderson GL, Gass, M, et al. Estrogen plus progestin and breast cancer incidence and mortality in postmenopausal women. JAMA 2010; 304: 1864-92. PMID: 20959578 PubMed 
  9. Anderson GL, et al. Conjugated equine estrogen and breast cancer incidence and mortality in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: Extended follow-up of the Women's Health Initiative randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 2012; : e-pub. PMID: 22401913 PubMed 
  10. Michels KA, Pfeiffer RM, Brinton LA, et al. Modification of the Associations Between Duration of Oral Contraceptive Use and Ovarian, Endometrial, Breast, and Colorectal Cancers. JAMA Oncol 2018. PMID: 29346467 PubMed 
  11. Dinger J, Bardenheuer K, Minh TD. Levonorgestrel-releasing and copper intrauterine devices and the risk of breast cancer. Contraception 2011; 83: 211-7. PubMed 
  12. Cao Y, Willett WC, Rimm EB et al. Light to moderate intake of alcohol, drinking patterns, and risk of cancer: results from two prospective US cohort studies. Version 2. BMJ. 2015 Aug 18;351:h4238. PMID: 26286216 PubMed 
  13. Luo J, Margolis KL, Wactawski-Wende J, et al. Association of active and passive smoking with breast cancer among postmenopausal women: a prospective cohort study. BMJ 2011; 342. PMID: 21363864 PubMed 
  14. Ahern TP, Broe A, Lash TL et al. Phthalate Exposure and Breast Cancer Incidence: A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study. J Clin Oncol 2019; 17: 1802202. pmid:30995175 PubMed 
  15. Neuhouser ML, Aragaki AK, Prentice RL, et al. Overweight, Obesity, and Postmenopausal Invasive Breast Cancer Risk: A Secondary Analysis of the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Clinical Trials. JAMA Oncol. 2015 Aug;1(5):611-21. PMID: 26182172 PubMed 
  16. Travis RC, Balkwill A, Fensom GK, et al. Night Shift Work and Breast Cancer Incidence: Three Prospective Studies and Meta-analysis of Published Studies. JNCI J Natl Cancer Inst 2016; 108 (12): djw169. PMID: 27758828 PubMed 
  17. International Agency for Research on Cancer. Volume 124: Night shift work. IARC Working Group. Lyon, France; June 4–11, 2019. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Chem Hum (in press)
  18. Research-based evaluation of the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Oslo: Norsk forskningsråd. Divisjon for samfunn og helse. ; mai 2015. www.forskningsradet.no 
  19. Independent UK Panel on Breast Cancer Screening. The benefits and harms of breast cancer screening: an independent review. Lancet 2012; 380: 1778-86. pmid:23117178 PubMed 
  20. Siu AL; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Ann Intern Med 2016; 164: 279-96. pmid:26757170 PubMed 
  21. Hofvind S, Holen ÅS, Aase HS et al.Two-view digital breast tomosynthesis versus digital mammography in a population-based breast cancer screening programme (To-Be): a randomised, controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2019 Jun;20(6):795-805. Epub 2019 May 8. Erratum in: Lancet Oncol. 2019 Jul;20(7):e346. PMID: 31078459.
  22. Pace LE, Keating NL. A systematic assessment of benefits and risks to guide breast cancer screening decisions. JAMA. 2014 Apr 2;311(13):1327-35. PMID: 24691608. PubMed 
  23. Hofvind S, Geller BM, Skelly J, Vacek PM. Sensitivity and specificity of mammographic screening as practised in Vermont and Norway. Br J Radiol 2012; 85: e1226-32. pmid:22993383 PubMed 
  24. Nasjonalt kunnskapssenter for helsetjenesten. Mammography screening of women 40–49. Rapport nr. 09 – 2007. Changed 2014. www.kunnskapssenteret.no 
  25. Nelson HD, Pappas M, Cantor A, et al. Harms of breast cancer screening: Systematic review to update the 2009 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation. Ann Intern Med. 2016 Jan 12. PMID: 26756737 PubMed 
  26. Myers ER, Moorman P, Gierisch JM et al. Benefits and Harms of Breast Cancer Screening: A Systematic Review. JAMA. 2015 Oct 20;314(15):1615-34. PubMed 
  27. Kalager M, Zelen M, Langmark F, Adami H-O. Effect of screening mammography on breast-cancer mortality in Norway. N Engl J Med 2010; 363: 1203-10. PMID: 20860502 PubMed 
  28. Tabár L, Vitak B, Chen TH-H, et al. Swedish two-county trial: Impact of mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality during 3 decades. Radiology 2011;260(3):658-63. PMID: 21712474 PubMed 
  29. Birnbaum J., Gadi VK., Markowitz E. et al. The Effect of Treatment Advances on the Mortality Results of Breast Cancer Screening Trials: A Microsimulation Model. Ann Intern Med 2016; 164: 236-43. pmid:26756332 PubMed 
  30. Welch HG, Prorok PC, O'Malley AJ, Kramer BS. Breast-Cancer Tumor Size, Overdiagnosis, and Mammography Screening Effectiveness. N Engl J Med 2017; 375: 1438-47. pmid:27732805 PubMed 
  31. Gøtzsche PC, Jørgensen KJ. Screening for breast cancer with mammography. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 6. CD001877.pub5 Cochrane (DOI) 
  32. Kalager M1, Adami HO, Bretthauer M, Tamimi RM. Overdiagnosis of invasive breast cancer due to mammography screening: results from the Norwegian screening program. Ann Intern Med 2012; 156: 491-9. pmid:22473436 PubMed 
  33. Lund E., Nakamura A., Thalabard JC. No overdiagnosis in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program estimated by combining record linkage and questionnaire information in the Norwegian Women and Cancer study. Eur J Cancer 2017; 89: 102-12. pmid:29245077 PubMed 
  34. Jorgensen KJ, Gotzsche PC. Overdiagnosis in publicly organised mammography screening programmes: systematic review of incidence trends. BMJ 2009; 339: b2587. PMID: 19589821 PubMed 
  35. Goodwin A, Parker S, Ghersi D, Wilcken N. Post-operative radiotherapy for ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 11. CD000563.pub7 Cochrane (DOI) 
  36. Hartmann-Johnsen OJ, Kåresen R, Schlichting E, Nygård JF. Survival is Better After Breast Conserving Therapy than Mastectomy for Early Stage Breast Cancer: A Registry-Based Follow-up Study of Norwegian Women Primary Operated Between 1998 and 2008. Ann Surg Oncol 2015. PMID:25743325 PubMed 
  37. de Boniface J, Szulkin R, Johansson ALV. Survival After Breast Conservation vs Mastectomy Adjusted for Comorbidity and Socioeconomic Status A Swedish National 6-Year Follow-up of 48 986 Women. JAMA Surg 2021. pmid:33950173 PubMed 
  38. Curigliano G, Burstein HJ, P Winer E et al. De-escalating and escalating treatments for early-stage breast cancer: the St. Gallen International Expert Consensus Conference on the Primary Therapy of Early Breast Cancer 2017. Ann Oncol 2017; 28: 1700-12. pmid:28838210 PubMed 
  39. Early breast cancer trialists' group (EBCTCG). Adjuvant bisphosphonate treatment in early breast cancer: meta-analyses of individual patient data from randomised trials . Lancet Oncol 2015. PMID: 26211824 PubMed 
  40. Kümler I, Knoop AS, Jessing CA. Review of hormone-based treatments in postmenopausal patients with advanced breast cancer focusing on aromatase inhibitors and fulvestrant. 2016 Aug 16;1(4):e000062. pmid: 27843622 PubMed 
  41. Ghersi D, Willson ML, Chan M, Simes J, Donoghue E, Wilcken N. Taxane-containing regimens for metastatic breast cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2015, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD003366. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003366.pub3 DOI 
  42. Egger SJ, Willson ML, Morgan J, Walker HS, Carrick S, Ghersi D, Wilcken N. Platinum-containing regimens for metastatic breast cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2017, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD003374. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003374.pub4 DOI 
  43. O'Carrigan B, Wong MHF, Willson ML, Stockler MR, Pavlakis N, Goodwin A. Bisphosphonates and other bone agents for breast cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2017, Issue 10. Art. No.: CD003474. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003474.pub4 DOI 
  44. Himelstein AL, Foster JC, Khatcheressian JL et al. Effect of Longer-Interval vs Standard Dosing of Zoledronic Acid on Skeletal Events in Patients With Bone Metastases A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2017; 317(1): 48-58. pmid:28030702 PubMed 
  45. Torres Lacomba M, Yuste Sánchez MJ, Zapico Goñi Á et al. Effectiveness of early physiotherapy to prevent lymphoedema after surgery for breast cancer: randomised, single blinded, clinical trial. BMJ 2010; 340: b5396. PMID: 20068255 PubMed 
  46. Rockson SG. Lymphedema after Breast Cancer Treatment. N Engl J Med. 2018 Nov 15;379(20):1937-1944. PMID: 30428297.
  47. Bak AM, Laursen BE, Rungby J, Brock B. Vaginal østrogenbehandling ved hormonfølsom brystkræft. Ugeskr Læger 2011; 173: 648. ugeskriftet.dk 
  48. Lahart IM, Metsios GS, Nevill AM, Carmichael AR. Physical activity for women with breast cancer after adjuvant therapy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Jan 29;1(1):CD011292. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011292.pub2 DOI 
  49. Rada G, Capurro D, Pantoja T, Corbalán J, Moreno G, Letelier LM, Vera C. Non-hormonal interventions for hot flushes in women with a history of breast cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 9. Art. No.: CD004923. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004923.pub2 DOI 
  50. Pandya KJ, Morrow GR, Roscoe JA, et al. Gabapentin for hot flashes in 420 women with breast cancer: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2005; 366: 818-24. PubMed 
  51. Kelly CM, Juurlink DN, Gomes T, et al. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and breast cancer mortality in women receiving tamoxifen: a population based cohort study. BMJ 2010; 340: c693. PMID: 20142325 PubMed 
  52. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Final Recommendation Statement. Breast Cancer: Medication Use to Reduce Risk. Rockville; Sept 03, 2019. www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org 
  53. Holmes MD, Chen WY, Hertzmark E, Spiegelman D, Hankinson SE. Aspirin intake and survival after breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2010; 28: 1467-72. PubMed 
  54. Carbine NE, Lostumbo L, Wallace J, Ko H. Risk‐reducing mastectomy for the prevention of primary breast cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2018, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD002748. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002748.pub4. Accessed 07 October 2021. The Cochrane Library 
  55. Armstrong AC, Evans GD. Management of women at high risk of breast cancer. Clinical review. BMJ 2014; 348: g2756. PMID: 24778341 PubMed 
  56. Portschy PR, Kuntz KM, Tuttle TM. Survival Outcomes After Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy: A Decision Analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst 2014. PMID: 25031308 PubMed 
  57. DiSipio T, Rye S, Newman B, Hayes S. Incidence of unilateral arm lymphoedema after breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lacet Oncol 2013; 14: 500-15. PubMed 
  58. Torres-Lacomba M, Prieto-Gomez V, Arranz-Martin B, et al. Manual Lymph Drainage With Progressive Arm Exercises for Axillary Web Syndrome After Breast Cancer Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Phys Ther. 2022. PMID: 35079831 PubMed 
  59. Gal R, van Helzen SGM, Hooning MJ, et al. Identification of Risk of Cardiovascular Disease by Automatic Quantification of Coronary Artery Calcifications on Radiotherapy Planning CT Scans in Patients With Breast Cancer. JAMA Oncol 2021. pmid:33956083 PubMed 
  60. Kreftregisteret. Cancer in Norway 2018. Oslo, 2019 www.kreftregisteret.no 
  61. Chan DS, Norat T. Obesity and breast cancer: not only a risk factor of the disease. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 2015 May;16(5):22. PMID:25904412 PubMed 
  62. Moschetti I, Cinquini M, Lambertini M, Levaggi A, Liberati A. Follow-up strategies for women treated for early breast cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2016, Issue 5. CD001768.pub3 Cochrane (DOI) 
  63. The American College of Obstetricians ang Gynecologists. Committee Opinion No. 601: Tamoxifen and uterine cancer. Obstet Gynecol 2014; 123: 1394-7. pmid:24848920 PubMed