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Sekundær amenoré

Sist oppdatert: Sist revidert:
Sist revidert av:


  1. Klein DA, Paradise SL, Reeder RM. Amenorrhea: A Systematic Approach to Diagnosis and Management. Am Fam Physician. 2019 Jul 1;100(1):39-48. PMID: 31259490. PubMed  
  2. Solnik MJ. Assessment of secondary amenorrhoea. BMJ Best Practice, last reviewed 20 Sep 2020. bestpractice.bmj.com  
  3. Practice Committee of American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Current evaluation of amenorrhea. Fertil Steril. 2008;90(5 suppl):S219–S225.
  4. De Souza MJ, Nattiv A, Joy E, et al.; Expert Panel. 2014 female athlete triad coalition consensus statement on treatment and return to play of the female athlete triad: 1st international conference held in San Francisco, California, May 2012 and 2nd international conference held in Indianapolis, Indiana, May 2013. Br J Sports Med. 2014;48(4):289. PubMed  
  5. Gordon CM, Ackerman KE, Berga SL, et al. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017;102(5):1413–1439. PMID: 28368518. PubMed  
  6. Ackerman KE, Singhal V, Baskaran C, et al. Oestrogen replacement improves bone mineral density in oligo-amenorrhoeic athletes: A randomised clinical trial. Br J Sport Med 2018. PMID: 30301734 PubMed  
  7. Singhal V, Ackerman KE, Bose A, et al. Impact of route of estrogen administration on bone turnover markers in oligoamenorrheic athletes and its mediators. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2018. Doi: 10.1210/jc.2018-02143) DOI  
  8. Kalantaridou S, Naka KK, Papanikolaou E, Kazakos N, Kravariti M, Calis KA, et al. Impaired endothelial function in young women with premature ovarian failure: normalization with hormone therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89: 3907-13. PubMed  
  9. Nelson LM. Clinical practice. Primary ovarian insufficiency. N Engl JMed. 2009;360(6):606–614. PMID: 19196677. PubMed  
  10. van der Schouw Y, van der Graaf Y, Steyerberg EW, Eijkemans JC, Banga JD. Age at menopause as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. Lancet 1996; 347: 714-8. PubMed  
  11. Welt CK, Chan JL, Bullen J, Murphy R, Smith P, DePaoli AM, et al. Recombinant human leptin in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 987-97. New England Journal of Medicine  
  12. Norsk gynekologisk forening. Gjør kloke valg. Publisert 13.06.2019. www.legeforeningen.no  
  13. Norsk kvalitetsforbedring av laboratorieundersøkelser (Noklus). Anbefalte analyser ved utvalgte kliniske problemstillinger. Siden besøkt 28.09.2020 www.noklus.no  
  14. Nelson LM. Clinical practice. Primary ovarian insufficiency. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(6):606–614.
  15. Gordon CM. Clinical practice. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(4):365–371.
  16. Kakuno Y, Amino N, Kanoh M, et al. Menstrual disturbances in various thyroid diseases. Endocr J. 2010;57(12):1017–1022.
  17. Falsetti L, Gambera A, Barbetti L, Specchia C. Long-term follow-up of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and prognostic factors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87(2):500–505.
  18. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG practice bulletin no. 108: polycystic ovary syndrome. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;114(4):936–949.
  19. Tang T, Lord JM, Norman RJ, Yasmin E, Balen AH. Insulin-sensitising drugs (metformin, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, D-chiro-inositol) for women with polycystic ovary syndrome, oligo amenorrhoea and sub-fertility. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(1):CD003053. Cochrane (DOI)  
  20. Bridger T, MacDonald S, Baltzer F, Rodd C. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of metformin for adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006;160(3):241–246.
  21. Molitch ME. Diagnosis and treatment of pituitary adenomas: a review. JAMA. 2017;317(5):516–524. PMID: 28170483. PubMed  
  • Terje Johannessen, professor i allmennmedisin, Trondheim

Tidligere fagmedarbeidere

  • Per Bergsjø, professor emeritus, dr. med., Universitetet i Bergen. Spesialist i kvinnesykdommer og fødselshjelp, forsker ved Nasjonalt folkehelseinstitutt, Oslo