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Innsetting og fjerning av spiral

Sist oppdatert: Sist revidert:
Sist revidert av:

  1. Hardeman J, Weiss BD. Intrauterine devices: an update. Am Fam Physician 2014; 89(6): 445-50. pmid:24695563 PubMed  
  2. Heinemann K, Reed S, Moehner S, Minh TD. Comparative contraceptive effectiveness of levonorgestrel-releasing and copper intrauterine devices: the European Active Surveillance Study for Intrauterine Devices. Contraception 2015. DOI: 10.1016/j.contraception.2015.01.011 DOI  
  3. O'Brien P, Marfleet CC. Frameless versus classical intrauterine device for contraception. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD003282 pmid: 15674904 PubMed  
  4. Krashin J, Tang JH, Mody S, Lopez LM. Hormonal and intrauterine methods for contraception for women aged 25 years and younger. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2015, Issue 8. Art. No.: CD009805. pmid: 26280888 PubMed  
  5. Winner B, Peipert JF, Zhao Q et al. Effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraception. N Engl J Med 2012; 366(21): 1998-2007. pmid:22621627 PubMed  
  6. Diedrich JT, Klein DA, Peipert JF. Long-acting reversible contraception in adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017; 216: 364. pmid:28038902 PubMed  
  7. Andersen LF. Oplægning og fjernelse af kobberspiral. Ugeskr Læger 2005; 167: 172-4. PubMed  
  8. Johnson BA. Insertion and removal of intrauterine devices. Am Fam Physician 2005; 71: 95-102. PubMed  
  9. Mantha S, Karp R, Raghavan V, et al. Assessing the risk of venous thromboembolic events in women taking progestin-only contraception: a meta-analysis. BMJ 2012; 345: e4944. doi: 10.1136.
  10. Nelson A, Apter D, Hauck B, et al. Two low-dose levonorgestrel intrauterine contraceptive systems: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2013 Dec;122(6):1205-13. DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000000019 DOI  
  11. Norsk gynekologisk forening. Veileder i gynekologi. Prevensjon. Sist revidert 2015. legeforeningen.no  
  12. Lethaby A, Hussain M, Rishworth JR, Rees MC. Progesterone or progestogen-releasing intrauterine systems for heavy menstrual bleeding. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2015, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD002126. pmid: 25924648 PubMed  
  13. Caron C. Inserting the levonorgestrel intrauterine system. Off-label use. Can Fam Physician 2007; 53: 643-44. pmid:17872714 PubMed  
  14. Ørbo A, Vereide AB, Ames M, Pettersen I, Straume B. Levonorgestrel-impregnated intrauterine device as treatment for endometrial hyperplasia: a national multicentre randomised trial*. BJOG, 2014; 121 (4): 477-86.
  15. Chen BA, Reeves MF, Hayes JL, et al. Postplacental or delayed insertion of the levonorgestrel intrauterine device after vaginal delivery: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2010; 116: 1079-87. PubMed  
  16. Nishimura RA, Carabello BA, Faxon DP et al. ACC/AHA 2008 guideline update on valvular heart disease: focused update on infective endocarditis: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines: endorsed by the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Circulation 2008; 118: 887-96. pmid:18663090 PubMed  
  17. Maquire K, Davis A, Rosario Tejeda L, Westhoff C. Intracervical lidocaine gel for intrauterine device insertion: a randomized controlled trial. Contraception 2012; 86: 214-9. PubMed  
  18. Lopez LM, Bernholc A, Zeng Y, Allen RH, Bartz D, O'Brien PA, Hubacher D. Interventions for pain with intrauterine device insertion. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2015, Issue 7. Art. No.: CD007373. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007373.pub3. DOI  
  19. Nelson AL. The intrauterine contraceptive device. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2000; 27: 723-40. PubMed  
  20. Grentzer JM, Peipert JF, Zhao Q et al. Risk-based screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae prior to intrauterine device insertion. Contraception 2015; 92(4): 313-8. pmid:26093189 PubMed  
  21. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG committee opinion No. 735, May 2018. Adolescents and long-acting reversible Contraception: Implants and Intrauterine Devices. Siden besøkt 26.10.2018
  22. Girum T, Wasie A. Return of fertility after discontinuation of contraception: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Contracept Reprod Med 2018. pmid:30062044 PubMed  
  23. Hubacher D, Lara-Ricalde R, Taylor DJ et al. Use of Copper Intrauterine Devices and the Risk of Tubal Infertility among Nulligravid Women. N Engl J Med 2001; 345(8): 561-7. pmid:11529209 PubMed  
  24. Prine L, Shah M. Long-Acting Reversible Contraception: Difficult Insertions and Removals. Am Fam Physician 2018; 98: 304-9. pmid:30216029 PubMed  
  25. Aoun J1, Dines VA, Stovall DW et al. Effects of age, parity, and device type on complications and discontinuation of intrauterine devices. Obstet Gynecol 2014; 123(3): 585-92. pmid:24499755 PubMed  
  26. Jatlaoui TC, Whiteman MK, Jeng G et al. Intrauterine Device Expulsion After Postpartum Placement: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol 2018; 132: 895-905. pmid:30204688 PubMed  
  27. Heinemann K, Reed S, Moehner S, Minh TD. Risk of uterine perforation with levonorgestrel-releasing and copper intrauterine devices in the European Active Surveillance Study on Intrauterine Devices. Contraception 2015. DOI: 10.1016/j.contraception.2015.01.007 DOI  
  28. Valbø A, Rønning EJ, Aaberg M. Aktinomykose som komplikasjon til spiralbruk. Tidsskr Nor Lægeforen 2010; 130(8): 830-2. pmid:20418928 PubMed  
  29. Widnes AF, Myklebust ÅJ. Forlenget bruk av hormonspiral hos premenopausale kvinner (RELIS). Utposten 2016; 45: 46-7. relis.no  
  30. IMAP statement on intrauterine devices. IPFF Med Bull 2003; 37: 1-5. PubMed  
  • Silje Folven Barlindhaug, spesialist i allmennmedisin, redaktør NEL