Hopp til hovedinnhold

Valg av prevensjonsmiddel

Sist revidert:
Sist revidert av:


  1. Ræder MB, Johansen M, Offerdal K. Prevensjon. Veileder i gynekologi. Norsk gynekologisk forening. Oslo: 2020. Siden besøkt 12.02.21 www.legeforeningen.no  
  2. Bonnema RA, McNamara MC, Spencer AL. Contraception choices in women with underlying medical conditions. Am Fam Physician 2010; 82: 621-8. American Family Physician  
  3. Reseptregisteret. Folkehelseinstituttet. Søk 12.02.2021 www.reseptregisteret.no  
  4. Juvkam KH, Gudim HB. Medikamentell behandling av menstruasjonsrelaterte plager. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2011; 9: 956-8. doi:10.4045/tidsskr.10.0300 DOI  
  5. Curtis KM, Peipert JF. Long-Acting Reversible Contraception. N Engl J Med 2017; 376: 461-68. pmid:28146650 PubMed  
  6. Sjekkliste og informasjon til forskrivere. Statens Legemiddelverk 2018 legemiddelverket.no  
  7. Mansour D, Inki P, Gemzell-Danielsson K. Efficacy of contraceptive methods: A review of the literature. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 2010; 15: 4-16. doi:10.3109/13625180903427675 DOI  
  8. Antikonception - behandlingsrekommendation. Läkemedelsverket 2014
  9. Statens legemiddelverk. Råd til helsepersonell. Anbefalte hormonelle prevensjonsmidler. Sist oppdatert 07.03.2019. Siden besøkt 14.03.2019. legemiddelverket.no  
  10. de Bastos M, Stegeman BH, Rosendaal FR, et al. Combined oral contraceptives: venous thrombosis. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev 2014; 3: CD010813. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010813.pub2 DOI  
  11. Oedingen C, Scholz S, Razum O. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the association of combined oral contraceptives on the risk of venous thromboembolism: The role of the progestogen type and estrogen dose. Thromb Res. 2018; 165:68-78. PMID: 29573722 PubMed  
  12. Roach RE, Helmerhorst FM, Lijfering WM, et al. Combined oral contraceptives: the risk of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev 2015, Issue 8. Art. No.: CD011054. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011054.pub2. DOI  
  13. Reiter L, Havnen GC. Forlenget p-pillesyklus – fordeler og ulemper. Relis.no. Publisert 01.10.15
  14. Nilsen T, Nordmo E. Bytte til p-piller med lavere risiko for blodpropp – bør det standardiseres? Norsk Farmaceutisk Tidsskrift 26.10.15
  15. Lopez LM, Grey TW, Stuebe AM, Chen M, Truitt ST, Gallo MF. Combined hormonal versus nonhormonal versus progestin‐only contraception in lactation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2015, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD003988. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003988.pub2. Accessed 17 February 2021. The Cochrane Library  
  16. P-implantat med etonogestrel - blødningsforstyrrelser og effekt hos overvektige kvinner. Relis.no. 03.06.15
  17. Bratberg Å, Havnen GC. Gestagener og risiko for fostermisdannelser. Relis.no. Publisert 20.04.16. relis.no  
  18. Westhoff CL, Keder LM, Gangestad A, et al. Six-year contraceptive efficacy and continued safety of a levonorgestrel 52 mg intrauterine system. Contraception 2019. pmid:31786203 PubMed  
  19. Widnes SF, Myklebust ÅJ. Forlenget bruk av hormonspiral hos premenopausale kvinner. Utposten 2016; 45(2): 46-7 relis.no  
  20. L3.11.2 Gestagen (antikonsepsjon). Norsk legemiddelhåndbok. Sist endret 28.03.2014
  21. Cleland K, Zhu H, Goldstuck N et al. The efficacy of intrauterine devices for emergency contraception: a systematic review of 35 years of experience. Hum Reprod. 2012 Jul;27(7):1994-2000. Epub 2012 May 8. PMID: 22570193 PubMed  
  22. Trussel J. Contraceptive failure in the United States. Contraception 2011; 83: 397-404. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2011.01.021 DOI  
  23. Vinogradova Y, Coupland C, Hippisley-Cox J. Use of combined oral contraceptives and risk of venous thromboembolism: nested case-control studies using the QResearch and CPRD databases. BMJ 2015; 350: h2135. doi:10.1136/bmj.h2135 DOI  
  24. Berglund Scherwitzl E, Gemzell Danielsson K, Sellberg JA et al. Fertility awareness-based mobile application for contraception. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2016 Jun;21(3):234-41. Epub 2016 Mar 22. PMID: 27003381 PubMed  
  25. Shen J, Che Y, Showell E et al. Interventions for emergency contraception. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2019, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD001324. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001324.pub6. The Cochrane Library  
  26. Turok DK, Gero A, Simmons RG et al. Levonorgestrel vs. Copper Intrauterine Devices for Emergency Contraception. N Engl J Med. 2021 Jan 28;384(4):335-344. PMID: 33503342.
  27. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 206: Use of Hormonal Contraception in Women With Coexisting Medical Conditions. Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Feb;133(2):e128-e150. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003072. Erratum in: Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Jun;133(6):1288. PMID: 30681544.
  28. Statens legemiddelverk. Preparatomtale (SPC) Diane. www.legemiddelverket.no/legemiddelsok. Sist endret: 17.06.2020. Siden besøkt 12.02.2021
  29. Arowojolu AO, Gallo MF, Lopez LM, Grimes DA. Combined oral contraceptive pills for treatment of acne. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 7. Art. No.: CD004425. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004425.pub6. DOI  
  30. Bratberg Å, Wesnes A. Valg av prevensjon til kvinner med polycystisk ovariesyndrom (PCOS). RELIS. Publisert 02.02.2017. relis.no  
  31. Vanky E, Underdal MO, Stauri RVK, Kjøtrød S. Polycystisk ovariesyndrom. Veileder i gynekologi. Norsk gynekologisk forening. Oslo: 2020. Siden besøkt 19.02.21 www.legeforeningen.no  
  32. Tellum T, Ringen IM, Veddeng A et al. Endometriose og adenomyose. Veileder i gynekologi. Norsk gynekologisk forening. Oslo: 2020. Siden besøkt 19.02.21 www.legeforeningen.no  
  33. Brown J, Kives S, Akhtar M. Progestagens and anti-progestagens for pain associated with endometriosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012; 3: CD002122. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002122.pub2 DOI  
  34. Reiter L, Nakken KO. Prevensjon for kvinner som bruker antiepileptika. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2016; 136: 32-4. doi:10.4045/tidsskr.14.1559 DOI  
  35. Lazorwitz A, Davis A, Swartz M, Guiahi M. The effect of carbamazepine on etonogestrel concentrations in contraceptive implant users. Contraception 2017; 95: 571-7. pmid:28288788 PubMed  
  36. Lopez LM, Bernholc A, Chen M, Grey TW, Otterness C, Westhoff C, Edelman A, Helmerhorst FM. Hormonal contraceptives for contraception in overweight or obese women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Aug 18;(8):CD008452. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD008452.pub4. The Cochrane Library  
  37. Skovlund CW, Mørch LS, Kessing LV, Lidegaard Ø. Association of Hormonal Contraception With Depression. JAMA Psychiatry 2016 Nov; 73(11): 1154-1162. pmid:27680324 PubMed  
  38. Lethaby A, Wise MR, Weterings MAJ, Bofill Rodriguez M, Brown J. Combined hormonal contraceptives for heavy menstrual bleeding. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2019, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD000154. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000154.pub3. Accessed 17 February 2021. The Cochrane Library  
  39. Bofill Rodriguez M, Lethaby A, Low C, Cameron IT. Cyclical progestogens for heavy menstrual bleeding. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2019, Issue 8. Art. No.: CD001016. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001016.pub3. Accessed 17 February 2021. The Cochrane Library  
  40. Skovlund CW, Mørch LS, Kessing LV, et al. Association of Hormonal Contraception With Suicide Attempts and Suicides. Am J Psychiatry 2017 Nov 17; Epub ahead of print: appiajp201717060616. pmid: 29145752 PubMed  
  41. Sacco S, Merki-Feld GS, Ægidius KL et al. European Headache Federation (EHF) and the European Society of Contraception and Reproductive Health (ESC). Hormonal contraceptives and risk of ischemic stroke in women with migraine: a consensus statement from the European Headache Federation (EHF) and the European Society of Contraception and Reproductive Health (ESC). J Headache Pain. 2017 Oct 30;18(1):108. Erratum in: J Headache Pain. 2018 Sep 10;19(1):81. PMID: 29086160 PubMed  
  42. Pagano HP, Zapata LB, Berry-Bibee EN, et al.. Safety of hormonal contraception and intrauterine devices among women with depressive and bipolar disorders: a systematic review. Contraception 2016 Dec; 94(6): 641-649. pmid:27364100 PubMed  
  43. Valen M, Norby G, Lerang K et al. SLE. Bindevevssykdommer og inflammatoriske myopatier. Norsk revmatologisk forening. Nasjonal veileder i revmatologi. Publisert 26.11.2020. Siden besøkt 19.02.2021 norskrevmatologi.no  
  44. Mantha S, Karp R, Raghavan V, et al. Assessing the risk of venous thromboembolic events in women taking progestin-only contraception: a meta-analysis. BMJ 2012; 345: e4944. PMID: 22872710 PubMed  
  45. Martinelli I, Lensing AW, Middeldorp S, et al. Recurrent venous thromboembolism and abnormal uterine bleeding with anticoagulant and hormone therapy use. Blood 2016; 127: 1417-25. doi:10.1182/blood-2015-08-665927 DOI  
  46. Weill A. Low dose oestrogen combined oral contraception and risk of pulmonary embolism, stroke, and myocardial infarction in five million French women: Cohort study. BMJ 2016. doi:10.1136/bmj.i2002 DOI  
  47. Mørch LS, Skovlund CW, Hannaford PC et al. Contemporary Hormonal Contraception and the Risk of Breast Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2017 Dec 7;377(23):2228-2239. PMID: 29211679.
  48. Michels KA, Pfeiffer RM, Brinton LA, Trabert B. Modification of the Associations Between Duration of Oral Contraceptive Use and Ovarian, Endometrial, Breast, and Colorectal Cancers. JAMA Oncol 2018. pmid:29346467 PubMed  
  49. Jatlaoui TC, Riley HEM, Curtis KM. The safety of intrauterine devices among young women: a systematic review. Contraception. 2017 Jan;95(1):17-39. Epub 2016 Oct 19. PMID: 27771475 PubMed  
  50. Ohannessian A, Levy A, Jaillant N et al. A French survey of contraceptive implant migration to the pulmonary artery. Contraception. 2019 Oct;100(4):255-257. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2019.05.016. Epub 2019 Jun 10. PMID: 31194964. PubMed  
  51. Kang S, Niak A, Gada N et al. Etonogestrel implant migration to the vasculature, chest wall, and distant body sites: cases from a pharmacovigilance database. Contraception. 2017 Dec;96(6):439-445. Epub 2017 Sep 1. PMID: 28867440. PubMed  
  52. Zhang S, Batur P, Martin C 3rd, Rochon PJ. Contraceptive Implant Migration and Removal by Interventional Radiology. Semin Intervent Radiol. 2018 Mar;35(1):23-28. Epub 2018 Apr 5. PMID: 29628612 PubMed  
  53. Thorkildsen RD, Thu F, Myrseth LE, Røkkum M. Major nerve injury in association with use of contraceptive implants. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2021 Apr 15;141(7). English, Norwegian. PMID: 33950659. PubMed  
  54. Brabaharan S, Veettil SK, Kaiser JE et al. Association of Hormonal Contraceptive Use With Adverse Health Outcomes: An Umbrella Review of Meta-analyses of Randomized Clinical Trials and Cohort Studies. JAMA Netw Open. 2022 Jan 4;5(1):e2143730. PMID: 35029663 PubMed  
  • Silje Folven Barlindhaug, spesialist i allmennmedisin, redaktør NEL