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Melasma, pigmentendringer

Melasma er en hudforandring som vises som brune flekker i ansiktet på voksne personer. Nesten alle kvinner opplever noen grad av slike hudforandringer i svangerskapet.

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Den ligger åpent tilgjengelig på NHI.no sammen annen relevant informasjon

https://nhi.no/sykdommer/hud/foflekker-pigmenterte-utslett/pigmentendringer-melasma/ 

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Referanser

Dette dokumentet er basert på det profesjonelle dokumentet Melasma, kloasma. Referanselisten for dette dokumentet vises nedenfor.

  1. Plensdorf S, Livieratos M, Dada N. Pigmentation disorders: diagnosis and management. Am Fam Physician. 2017 Dec 15;96(12):797-804. PubMed 
  2. Werlinger KD, Guevara IL, González CM, et al. Prevalence of self-diagnosed melasma among premenopausal Latino women in Dallas and Fort Worth, Tex. Arch Dermatol. 2007 Mar. 143(3):424-5.
  3. Kroumpouzos G, Cohen LM. Dermatoses of pregnancy. J Am Acad Dermatol 2001; 45: 1-19. PubMed 
  4. Ortonne JP, Arellano I, Berneburg M, et al. A global survey of the role of ultraviolet radiation and hormonal influences in the development of melasma. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2009 Nov. 23(11):1254-62.
  5. Jang YH, Lee JY, Kang HY, Lee ES, Kim YC. Oestrogen and progesterone receptor expression in melasma: an immunohistochemical analysis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2010 Nov. 24(11):1312-6.
  6. Lyford WH. Melasma. Medscape, last updated Jul 14, 2016. emedicine.medscape.com 
  7. Lakhdar H, Zouhair K, Khadir K, Essari A, Richard A, Seité S, et al. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a broad-spectrum sunscreen in the prevention of chloasma in pregnant women. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007 Jul. 21(6):738-42.
  8. Ernst E. Herbal medicinal products during pregnancy: are they safe? BJOG 2002; 109: 227-35. PubMed 
  9. Torok HM, Jones T, Rich P, Smith S, Tschen E. Hydroquinone 4%, tretinoin 0.05%, fluocinolone acetonide 0.01%: a safe and efficacious 12-month treatment for melasma. Cutis 2005; 75: 57-62. PubMed 
  10. Erbil H, Sezer E, Tastan B, Arca E, Kurumlu Z. Efficacy and safety of serial glycolic acid peels and a topical regimen in the treatment of recalcitrant melasma. J Dermatol 2007; 34: 25-30. PubMed 
  11. Nanda S, Grover C, Reddy BS. Efficacy of hydroquinone (2%) versus tretinoin (0.025%) as adjunct topical agents for chemical peeling in patients of melasma. Dermatol Surg 2004; 30: 385-9. PubMed 
  12. Rivas S, Pandya AG. Treatment of melasma with topical agents, peels and lasers: an evidence-based review. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2013;14(5):359–376.
  13. Wang CC, Hui CY, Sue YM, Wong WR, Hong HS. Intense pulsed light for the treatment of refractory melasma in Asian persons. Dermatol Surg 2004; 30: 1196-1200. PubMed 
  14. Sheth VM, Pandya AG. Melasma: a comprehensive update: part II. J Am Acad Dermatol 2011; 65:699. PubMed