Hopp til hovedinnhold

Covid-19

Sist oppdatert: Sist revidert:
Sist revidert av:


Definisjon:
Virusinfeksjon som primært rammer luftveiene, forårsaket av koronavirus SARS-CoV-2
Forekomst:
Oppdaget i januar 2020 i Wuhan, Kina. Pandemisk siden mars 2020. Oversikt over den globale smittespredningen se verdenskart fra WHO 
Symptomer:
Den klassiske symptomtriaden består av feber, utmattelse og tørrhoste. Ellers varierende fra asymptomatiske forløp til milde symptomer på luftveisinfeksjon og/eller nedsatt smak- og luktesans, influensalignende symptomer, ev. magesmerter, diaré, oppkast, symptomer på pneumoni, lungesvikt og sepsis
Funn:
Ofte få eller ingen kliniske funn. Ev. økt resp. frekvens, lungefysikalia, tegn på respiratorisk svikt, sepsis, sjokk 
Diagnostikk:
PCR. Penselprøve fra svelg og nasofarynks, ev. prøvetaking fra nedre luftveier. Serologisk diagnostikk i tvilstilfeller. Hurtigtests har varierende kvalitet. Rtg. eller CT thorax kan vise pneumoni
Behandling:
Isolat og andre smitteverntiltak. Støttende behandling med væske- og ev. respiratorbehandling. Ev. antiviral behandling. Ev. kortikosteroider, kun ved alvorlige tilfeller. Vaksinering av befolkningen som forebyggende behandling
  1. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ecdc). Situation updates on COVID-19. www.ecdc.europa.eu  
  2. Folkehelseinstituttet. Statistikk om koronavirus og covid-19. Sist oppdatert 22.04.2022. www.fhi.no  
  3. Oran DP, Topol EJ. The Proportion of SARS-CoV-2 Infections That Are Asymptomatic : A Systematic Review. Ann Intern Med. 2021 May;174(5):655-662. 2021 Jan 22. PMID: 33481642;
  4. Paules CI, Marston HD, Fauci AS. Coronavirus Infections-More Than Just the Common Cold. JAMA. 2020 Feb 25;323(8):707-708. PMID: 31971553. PubMed  
  5. Hu B, Guo H, Zhou P, Shi ZL. Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2021 Mar;19(3):141-154. Epub 2020 Oct 6. PMID: 33024307; PMCID: PMC7537588.
  6. Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, et al. A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019. NEJM 2020; Epub: Jan 24. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2001017 DOI  
  7. Holmes EC, Goldstein SA, Rasmussen AL, et al. The origins of SARS-CoV-2: A critical review. Cell. 2021 Sep 16;184(19):4848-4856. Epub 2021 Aug 19. PMID: 34480864 PubMed  
  8. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. SARS-CoV-2 variants dashboard. www.ecdc.europa.eu  
  9. Folkehelseinstituttet. Fakta om koronaviruset SARS-CoV-2 og sykdommen covid-19. Sist oppdatert 07.02.2022. www.fhi.no  
  10. Duval D, Palmer JC, Tudge I, et al. Long distance airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2: rapid systematic review. BMJ 2022; 377: e068743. pmid:35768139 PubMed  
  11. Boban M. Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) update on epidemiology, pathogenicity, clinical course and treatments. Int J Clin Pract. 2021 Apr;75(4):e13868. Epub 2020 Dec 6. PMID: 33244856 PubMed  
  12. Folkehelseinstituttet. Molekylær diagnostikk av SARS-Cov-2. Sist oppdatert 29.03.2021. www.fhi.no  
  13. Wölfel R, Corman VM, Guggemos W, et al. Virological assessment of hospitalized patients with COVID-2019. Nature 2020. pmid:32235945 PubMed  
  14. Li MY, Li L, Zhang Y, Wang XS. Expression of the SARS-CoV-2 cell receptor gene ACE2 in a wide variety of human tissues. Infect Dis Poverty. 2020 Apr 28;9(1):45. PMID: 32345362 PubMed  
  15. Lee HW, Yoon CH, Jang EJ, Lee CH. Renin-angiotensin system blocker and outcomes of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Thorax. 2021 Jan 27:thoraxjnl-2020-215322. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2020-215322. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33504565 PubMed  
  16. Becker RC. COVID-19-associated vasculitis and vasculopathy. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2020 Oct;50(3):499-511. PMID: 32700024 PubMed  
  17. Liu JM, Tan BH, Wu S, Gui Y, Suo JL, Li YC. Evidence of central nervous system infection and neuroinvasive routes, as well as neurological involvement, in the lethality of SARS-CoV-2 infection. J Med Virol. 2021 Mar;93(3):1304-1313. Epub 2020 Oct 14. PMID: 33002209 PubMed  
  18. Gao YD, Ding M, Dong X, et al. Risk factors for severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients: A review. Allergy. 2021 Feb;76(2):428-455. Epub 2020 Dec 4. PMID: 33185910 PubMed  
  19. Chen S, Zheng T, Wang S, Yu Y, Wang P, Song Y, Jiang J. Association between risk of VTE and mortality in patients with COVID-19. Int J Infect Dis. 2021 Jun 6:S1201-9712(21)00494-X. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34107325 PubMed  
  20. Wolff D, Nee S, Hickey NS, Marschollek M. Risk factors for Covid-19 severity and fatality: a structured literature review. Infection. 2021 Feb;49(1):15-28. Epub 2020 Aug 28. PMID: 32860214 PubMed  
  21. Liu N, Zhang T, Ma L, et al. The impact of ABO blood group on COVID-19 infection risk and mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Blood Rev. 2021 Jul;48:100785. Epub 2020 Dec 8. PMID: 33309392 PubMed  
  22. Bastard P, Rosen LB, Zhang Q, Eleftherios M. Auto-antibodies against type I IFNs in patients with life-threatening COVID-19. Science 2020. pmid:32972996 PubMed  
  23. Direktoratet for e-helse. Kodeverk. ICPC-2. Den internasjonale klassifikasjonen for primærhelsetjenesten. Kodeveiledning. Siden besøkt 04.05.2020. ehelse.no  
  24. Helsedirektoratet. Nasjonal veileder. Koronavirus - beslutninger og anbefalinger. Kapittel 9.1 Allmennlegetjenesten. Siden besøkt 26.04.2022. www.helsedirektoratet.no  
  25. Direktoratet for e-helse. Kodeverk. ICD-10. U07.1 og U07.2 finnkode.ehelse.no  
  26. Folkehelseinstituttet. Definisjon av mistenkt, sannsynlig og bekreftet tilfelle av covid-19, samt definisjon av nærkontakter. Sist oppdatert 22.12.2020. www.fhi.no  
  27. Beeching NJ, Fletcher TE, Fowler R. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). BMJ Best Practice. Last updated 07 Apr 2022. bestpractice.bmj.com  
  28. Hjelmesæth J, Skaare D. Covid-19 med nedsatt lukte- og smakssans som eneste symptom. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2020. doi:10.4045/tidsskr.20.0287 DOI  
  29. Esmaeili M, Abdi F, Shafiee G, Asayesh H, Abdar ZE, Baygi F, Qorbani M. Olfactory and Gustatory Dysfunction in 2019 Novel Coronavirus: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Int J Prev Med. 2021 Dec 14;12:170. PMID: 35070203 PubMed  
  30. Gavriatopoulou M, Korompoki E, Fotiou D, et al. Organ-specific manifestations of COVID-19 infection. Clin Exp Med. 2020;20(4):493-506. Pmid: 32720223 PubMed  
  31. Tveita A, Hestenes S, Sporastøyl ER, et al. Lungeembolisme ved covid-19. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2020. doi:10.4045/tidsskr.20.0366 DOI  
  32. Oxley TJ, Mocco J, Majidi S, et al. Large-Vessel Stroke as a Presenting Feature of Covid-19 in the Young. N Engl J Med 2020. doi:10.1056/NEJMc2009787 DOI  
  33. Sellevoll HB, Saeed U, Young VS, et al. Covid-19 med akutte magesmerter som debutsymptom. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2020. doi:10.4045/tidsskr.20.0262 DOI  
  34. Smith V, Seo D, Warty R, Payne O, Salih M, Chin KL, Ofori-Asenso R, Krishnan S, da Silva Costa F, Vollenhoven B, Wallace E. Maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with COVID-19 infection: A systematic review. PLoS One. 2020 Jun 4;15(6):e0234187. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0234187. PMID: 32497090 PubMed  
  35. Drammen GF, Greve-Isdahl M, Helbig A et al. Koronavirus ved svangerskap og fødsel. Norsk Gynekologisk Forening. Versjon 7, 22.03.2022. Siden besøkt 26.04.2022 www.legeforeningen.no  
  36. Pediatriveiledere. Fra Norsk barnelegeforening. Generell veileder. 3.28 COVID-19: SARS-Coronavirus-2 infeksjon hos barn. Revidert 2020-2021. Siden besøkt 26.04.2022. www.helsebiblioteket.no  
  37. Molteni E, Sudre CH, Canas LS, et al.. Illness duration and symptom profile in symptomatic UK school-aged children tested for SARS-CoV-2. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2021 Aug 3:S2352-4642(21)00198-X. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34358472.
  38. Myrstad M, Ihle-Hansen H, Tveita AA, et al. National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) on admission predicts severe disease and in-hospital mortality from Covid-19 - a prospective cohort study. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2020;28(1):66. Published 2020 Jul 13. Pmid: 32660623 PubMed  
  39. Folkehelseinstituttet. Om koronatest. Publisert 06.04.2022. Siden besøkt 25.04.2022. www.fhi.no  
  40. FHI. Koronavirus - fakta, råd og tiltak. Antigen-hurtigtester. Sist oppdatert 07.04.2022. www.fhi.no  
  41. FHI. Koronavirus - fakta, råd og tiltak. Kriterier for melding og varsling av covid-19. Sist oppdatert 02.03.2022. Siden besøkt 27.04.2022. www.fhi.no  
  42. Kucirka LM, Lauer SA, Laeyendecker O, et al.:Variation in False-Negative Rate of Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction–Based SARS-CoV-2 Tests by Time Since Exposure. Ann Intern Med 2020;May 13:Epub ahead of print. www.acc.org  
  43. Mustafa Hellou M, Górska A, Mazzaferri F, et al. Nucleic acid amplification tests on respiratory samples for the diagnosis of coronavirus infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis published online ahead of print, 2020 Nov 11. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2020;S1198-743X(20)30695-9. Pmid: 33188933 PubMed  
  44. FHI. Koronavirus - fakta, råd og tiltak. Serologi og antistoff hurtigtester. Sist oppdatert 27.09.2021. www.fhi.no  
  45. Böger B, Fachi MM, Vilhena RO, et al. Systematic review with meta-analysis of the accuracy of diagnostic tests for COVID-19. Am J Infect Control. 2020 Jul 10. pii: S0196-6553(20)30693-3. Pmid: 32659413 PubMed  
  46. The Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. What is the efficacy and safety of rapid exercise tests for exertional desaturation in covid-19? April 21, 2020. Siden besøkt 11.05.2020. www.cebm.net  
  47. Folkhälsomyndigheten. Diagnostik av coronavirus 2019-nCoV, ett nytt virus som orsakat ett utbrott av allvarlig lunginflammation i Kina. Hämtad 2020-01-29
  48. Aaløkken TM, Parkar AP, Markussen TV. Bildediagnostikk av pasienter med covid-19. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2020. doi:10.4045/tidsskr.20.0332 DOI  
  49. Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, et al.. Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med 2020; Feb 28: Epub ahead of print. pmid:32109013 PubMed  
  50. S Inui, A Fujikawa, M Jitsu. Chest CT Findings in Cases from the Cruise Ship “Diamond Princess” with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Cardiothoracic Imaging. Vol. 2, No. 2. 2020 pubs.rsna.org  
  51. Wang Y, Liu Y, Liu L, et al. Clinical Outcomes in 55 Patients With Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Who Were Asymptomatic at Hospital Admission in Shenzhen, China. J Infect Dis. 2020 May 11;221(11):1770-1774. PMID: 32179910 PubMed  
  52. Sun Z, Zhang N, Li Y, et al. A systematic review of chest imaging findings in COVID-19. Quant Imaging Med Surg. 2020 May;10(5):1058-1079. Pmid: 32489929. PubMed  
  53. Socialstyrelsen. Rehabilitering i samband med covid-19 i primärvården. 2020-05-15 Dnr 4.3-14599/2020. www.socialstyrelsen.se  
  54. Greenhalgh T, Knight M, A'Court C, Buxton M, Husain L. Management of post-acute covid-19 in primary care. BMJ. 2020;370:m3026. Published 2020 Aug 11. PMID: 32784198 PubMed  
  55. Norsk forening for infeksjonsmedisin. Antivirale og immunmodulerende midler ved COVID-19. Oversikt over aktuelle behandlingsmuligheter for pasienter innlagt ved norske sykehus, V13, 20.01.2022 www.legeforeningen.no  
  56. Statens legemiddelverk. Aktuelle legemidler mot covid-19 i EU. Sist oppdatert 27.04.2022. Siden lest 19.07.2022 legemiddelverket.no  
  57. Siemieniuk RA, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, et al. Drug treatments for covid-19: living systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2020;370:m2980. Published 2020 Jul 30. doi:10.1136/bmj.m2980. Pmid: 32732190.
  58. Hammond J, Leister-Tebbe H, Gardner A, et al. Oral Nirmatrelvir for High-Risk, Nonhospitalized Adults with Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2022 Apr 14;386(15):1397-1408. Epub 2022 Feb 16. PMID: 35172054 PubMed  
  59. Bernal AJ, Gomes da Silva MM, Musungaie DB, et al. Molnupiravir for Oral Treatment of Covid-19 in Nonhospitalized Patients. N Engl J Med 2022; 386: 509-520. pmid:34914868 PubMed  
  60. Helsedirektoratet. Nasjonal veileder. Koronavirus - beslutninger og anbefalinger. Kapittel 7.3 Legemidler, vaksiner og smittevernutstyr. Siden besøkt 28.02.2022.
  61. Robb CT, Goepp M, Rossi AG, Yao C. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, prostaglandins, and COVID-19. Br J Pharmacol. 2020 Nov;177(21):4899-4920. Epub 2020 Aug 27. PMID: 32700336 PubMed  
  62. Ledford H. Nature. News. Coronavirus breakthrough: dexamethasone is first drug shown to save lives. 16. June 2020. www.nature.com  
  63. WHO Rapid Evidence Appraisal for COVID-19 Therapies (REACT) Working Group, Sterne JAC, Murthy S, et al. Association Between Administration of Systemic Corticosteroids and Mortality Among Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19: A Meta-analysis published online ahead of print, 2020 Sep 2. JAMA. 2020;10.1001/jama.2020.17023. PMID: 32876694 PubMed  
  64. Shuto H, Komiya K, Yamasue M, et al. A systematic review of corticosteroid treatment for noncritically ill patients with COVID-19. Sci Rep. 2020;10(1):20935. Published 2020 Dec 1. Pmid: 33262415. PubMed  
  65. Lamontagne F, Agoritsas T, Macdonald H, et al. A living WHO guideline on drugs for covid-19. BMJ. 2020;370:m3379. Published 2020 Sep 4. doi:10.1136/bmj.m3379. PMID: 32887691. PubMed  
  66. Ramakrishnan S, Nicolau DV, Langford B, et al. Inhaled budesonide in the treatment of early COVID-19 (STOIC): a phase 2, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2021. PMID: 33844996 PubMed  
  67. Yu LM, Bafadhel M, Dorward J, et al.; PRINCIPLE Trial Collaborative Group. Inhaled budesonide for COVID-19 in people at high risk of complications in the community in the UK (PRINCIPLE): a randomised, controlled, open-label, adaptive platform trial. Lancet. 2021 Sep 4;398(10303):843-855. Epub 2021 Aug 10. Erratum in: Lancet. 2021 Aug 18; PMID: 34388395 PubMed  
  68. Liew F, Openshaw PJM. Inhaled corticosteroids: not just for asthma, but for COVID-19? Lancet Respir Med. 2022 Jun;10(6):526-527. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(22)00053-4. Epub 2022 Apr 7. PMID: 35397799; PMCID: PMC8989394.
  69. Burns C. NICE removes budesonide from recommended COVID-19 treatments. The Pharmaceutical Journal. Publisert 15 Dec. 2021. pharmaceutical-journal.com  
  70. Rashid RA, Zgair A, Al-Ani RM. Effect of nasal corticosteroid in the treatment of anosmia due to COVID-19: A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study. Am J Otolaryngol. 2021 Apr 7;42(5):103033. doi: 10.1016/j.amjoto.2021.103033. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33839489 PubMed  
  71. Piechotta V, Iannizzi C, Chai KL, et al.. Convalescent plasma or hyperimmune immunoglobulin for people with COVID-19: a living systematic review. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 May 20;5(5):CD013600. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD013600.pub4 DOI  
  72. Fan AY, Gu S, Alemi SF; Research Group for Evidence-based Chinese Medicine. Chinese herbal medicine for COVID-19: Current evidence with systematic review and meta-analysis. J Integr Med. 2020 Sep;18(5):385-394. Epub 2020 Jul 31. PMID: 32792254 PubMed  
  73. Alavi Darazam I, Shokouhi S, Pourhoseingholi MA, et al. Role of interferon therapy in severe COVID-19: the COVIFERON randomized controlled trial. Sci Rep. 2021;11(1):8059. Published 2021 Apr 13. Pmid: 33850184 PubMed  
  74. Regjeringen.no. WHOs globale koronastudie starter i Norge Nyhet | Dato: 27.03.2020. www.regjeringen.no  
  75. WHO. "Solidarity" clinical trial for COVID-19 treatments. www.who.int  
  76. WHO Solidarity trial consortium. Repurposed antiviral drugs for COVID-19 –interim WHO SOLIDARITY trial results. Publisert 15. Oct. 2020. www.medrxiv.org  
  77. Lai CC, Chen CH, Wang CY, et al. Clinical efficacy and safety of remdesivir in patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2021 Mar 24:dkab093. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33758946.
  78. Prasad M, Elavarasi A, Madan K, et al.. Efficacy and safety of antivirals for Covid-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Natl Med J India. 2020 Jul-Aug;33(4):222-231. PMID: 34045377 PubMed  
  79. Ader F, Bouschambert-Duchamp M, Hites M, et al. Remdesivir plus standard of care versus standard of care alone for the treatment of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (DisCoVeRy): a phase 3, randomised, controlled, open-label trial. Lancet Infect Dis 2022; 22: 209-221. pmid:34534511 PubMed  
  80. Fiolet T, Guihur A, Rebeaud ME, et al. Effect of hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin on the mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2020 Aug 26:S1198-743X(20)30505-X. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32860962 PubMed  
  81. Alhumaid S, Mutair AA, Alawi ZA, et al. Efficacy and Safety of Lopinavir/Ritonavir for Treatment of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Trop Med Infect Dis. 2020 Nov 28;5(4):180. PMID: 33260553 PubMed  
  82. Malgie J, Schoones JW, Pijls BG. Decreased mortality in COVID-19 patients treated with Tocilizumab: a rapid systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies published online ahead of print, 2020 Sep 23. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;ciaa1445. Pmid: 32964913 PubMed  
  83. Hermine O, Mariette X, Tharaux PL, et al. Effect of Tocilizumab vs Usual Care in Adults Hospitalized With COVID-19 and Moderate or Severe Pneumonia: A Randomized Clinical Trial published online ahead of print, 2020 Oct 20. JAMA Intern Med. 2020; Pmid: 33080017 PubMed  
  84. Stone JH, Frigault MJ, Serling-Boyd NJ, et al. Efficacy of Tocilizumab in Patients Hospitalized with Covid-19 published online ahead of print, 2020 Oct 21. N Engl J Med. 2020; Pmid: 33085857 PubMed  
  85. Rocco PRM, Silva PL, Cruz FF, et al. Early use of nitazoxanide in mild Covid-19 disease: randomised, placebo-controlled trial published online ahead of print, 2020 Dec 24. Eur Respir J. 2020;2003725. Pmid: 33361100 PubMed  
  86. Oldenburg CE, Pinsky BA, Brogdon J, et al. Effect of Oral Azithromycin vs Placebo on COVID-19 Symptoms in Outpatients With SARS-CoV-2 Infection A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2021; 326: 490-8. pmid:34269813 PubMed  
  87. Butler CC, Yu LM, Dorward J, et al. Doxycycline for community treatment of suspected COVID-19 in people at high risk of adverse outcomes in the UK (PRINCIPLE): a randomised, controlled, open-label, adaptive platform trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2021. PMID: 34329624 PubMed  
  88. Bramante CT, Huling JD, Tignanelli CJ, et al. Randomized Trial of Metformin, Ivermectin, and Fluvoxamine for Covid-19. N Engl J Med 2022; 387: 599-610. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2201662 DOI  
  89. RECOVERY Collaborative Group. Colchicine in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial. Lancet Respir Med 2021. pmid:34672950 PubMed  
  90. Liu K, Zhang W, Yang Y, et al. Respiratory rehabilitation in elderly patients with COVID-19: A randomized controlled study. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2020 May;39:101166. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2020.101166. Epub 2020 Apr
  91. Walker A, Pottinger G, Scott A, Hopkins C. Anosmia and loss of smell in the era of covid-19. BMJ. 2020;370:m2808. Published 2020 Jul 21. Pmid: 32694187 PubMed  
  92. Hopkins C, Alanin M, Philpott C, et al. Management of new onset loss of sense of smell during the COVID-19 pandemic - BRS Consensus Guidelines. Clin Otolaryngol. 2021 Jan;46(1):16-22. Epub 2020 Sep 24. PMID: 32854169 PubMed  
  93. Liang M, Gao L, Cheng C, et al. Efficacy of face mask in preventing respiratory virus transmission: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2020 May 27:101751.Pmid: 32473312 PubMed  
  94. Bartoszko JJ, Farooqi MAM, Alhazzani W, et al. Medical masks vs N95 respirators for preventing COVID-19 in healthcare workers: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2020 Apr 4. Pmid: 32246890 PubMed  
  95. Chu DK, Akl EA, Duda S, et al. Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2020 Jun 1. pii: S0140-6736(20)31142-9. Pmid: 32497510. PubMed  
  96. Joliffe DA, Holt H, Greenig M, et al. Effect of a test-and-treat approach to vitamin D supplementation on risk of all cause acute respiratory tract infection and covid-19: phase 3 randomised controlled trial (CORONAVIT). BMJ 2022; 378: e071230. doi:10.1136/bmj-2022-071230 DOI  
  97. Brunvoll SH, Nygaard AB, Ellingjord-Dale M, et al. Prevention of covid-19 and other acute respiratory infections with cod liver oil supplementation, a low dose vitamin D supplement: quadruple blinded, randomised placebo controlled trial. BMJ 2022. doi:10.1136/bmj-2022-071245 DOI  
  98. McIntosh K. COVID-19: Clinical features. UpToDate. Last updated Feb. 18, 2021. www.uptodate.com  
  99. Cariou, B., Hadjadj, S., Wargny, M. et al. Phenotypic characteristics and prognosis of inpatients with COVID-19 and diabetes: the CORONADO study. Diabetologia (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-020-05180-x
  100. FHI. COVID-19-EPIDEMIEN: Risiko, prognose og respons i Norge etter uke 12. Folkehelseinstituttet, 24.03.2020. www.fhi.no  
  101. Tan BKJ, Han R, Zhao JJ, et al et al. Prognosis and persistence of smell and taste dysfunction in patients with covid-19: Meta-analysis with parametric cure modelling of recovery curves. BMJ 2022 Jul 27; 378:e069503. PMID: 35896188 PubMed  
  102. Ludvigsson JF. Systematic review of COVID‐19 in children show milder cases and a better prognosis than adults. Acta Paediatr. Accepted Author Manuscript. 2020. doi:10.1111/apa.15270 DOI  
  103. Villar J, Ariff S, Gunier RB et al. Maternal and Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality Among Pregnant Women With and Without COVID-19 Infection: The INTERCOVID Multinational Cohort Study. JAMA Pediatr. 2021 Aug 1;175(8):817-826. PMID: 33885740 PubMed  
  104. Gorzkowski V, Bevilacqua S, Charmillon A, et al. Evolution of Olfactory Disorders in COVID-19 Patients published online ahead of print, 2020 Jul 2. Laryngoscope. 2020;10.1002/lary.28957. Pmid: 32617990 PubMed  
  105. Katsoularis I, Fonseca-Rodiguez O, Farrington P, et al. Risk of acute myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke following COVID-19 in Sweden: A self-controlled case series and matched cohort study. Lancet 2021. PMID: 34332652 PubMed  
  106. Gnecchi M, Moretti F, Bassi EM, et al. Myocarditis in a 16-year-old boy positive for SARS-CoV-2. Lancet 2020; 395: Epub June 27. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31307-6 DOI  
  107. Läkartidningen. 2020;117:20094 lakartidningen.se  
  108. Viner RM, Whittaker E. Kawasaki-like Disease: Emerging Complication During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Lancet 2020. pmid:32410759 PubMed  
  109. Patel P, De Cuir J, Abrams J, et al. Clinical Characteristics of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Adults A Systematic Review. JAMA Netw Open 2021. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.26456 DOI  
  110. Juvet LK, Laake I, Vestrheim DF: Letalitet og infeksjonsletalitet for alvorlig Covid-19 – 1. oppdatering – en hurtigoversikt. Hurtigoversikt 2020. Oslo: Folkehelseinstituttet, mai 2020. www.fhi.no  
  111. Public Health England. Past COVID-19 infection provides some immunity but people may still carry and transmit virus. Press release, 14. Jan 2021. www.gov.uk  
  112. Flodgren GM, Immunity after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Rapid review 2020. Oslo: Norwegian Institute of Public Health, 2020. legehandboka.no  
  113. Edridge A, Kaczorowska JM, Hoste A et al. Human coronavirus reinfection dynamics: lessons fo r SARS-CoV-2.medRxiv 2020.05.11.20086439; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.11.20086439
  114. Levin AT, Hanage WP, Owusu-Boaitey N, et al. Assessing the age specificity of infection fatality rates for COVID-19: systematic review, meta-analysis, and public policy implications. Eur J Epidemiol. 2020 Dec;35(12):1123-1138. Epub 2020 Dec 8. PMID: 33289900 PubMed  
  115. Dyer O. Covid-19: Delta infections threaten herd immunity vaccine strategy BMJ 2021; 374 :n1933 doi:10.1136/bmj.n1933 DOI  
  116. Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre. ICNARC report on COVID-19 in critical care. 04 April 2020 www.icnarc.org  
  117. Ellinghaus D, Degenhardt F, Bujanda L, et al. Genomewide Association Study of Severe Covid-19 with Respiratory Failure. N Engl J Med 2020. pmid:32558485 PubMed  
  118. Lopez-Leon S, Wegman-Ostrosky T, Perelman C, et al.. More than 50 long-term effects of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep. 2021 Aug 9;11(1):16144. PMID: 34373540 PubMed  
  • Peter D. Jost, spesialist i allmennmedisin, redaktør NEL