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Hiv og aids

Sist oppdatert: Sist revidert:
Sist revidert av:

Definisjon:
Kronisk infeksjon med humant immunsvikt-virus (hiv). Aids er en hiv-infeksjon med kliniske tegn på immunsvikt. Smitter ved seksuell kontakt og via blod, blodprodukter, vevs- og organtransplantasjon, og fra mor til barn perinatalt
Forekomst:
I Norge stabile insidenstall siste 15 år med ca. 200-250 tilfeller årlig, men fallende insidens til under 200 fra 2018 
Symptomer:
Akutt infeksjon gir symptomer hos 50-70% cirka 2-4 uker etter smitte i form av feber, halsbetennelse, hovne lymfekjertler på halsen, utslett. Den akutte tilstanden går over av seg selv og etterfølges av en langvarig symptomfri fase med kronisk infeksjon.
Funn:
Gradvis utvikling av immunsvikt med økt risiko for infeksjoner og maligne sykdommer etter som immunsystemet svekkes.
Diagnostikk:
Diagnosen stilles ved påvisning av hiv-antistoffer og hiv-antigen. Sykdommen følges med måling av hiv-RNA og CD4-positive celler i blod
Behandling:
Behandling starter straks diagnosen er stilt. Livslang kombinasjonsbehandling med minst tre effektive medikamenter (ART = antiretroviral terapi)
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  • Bjørn Waagsbø, overlege avdeling for infeksjonssykdommer, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim

Tidligere fagmedarbeidere

  • Johan N. Bruun, overlege, professor i infeksjonssykdommer, Infeksjonsmedisinsk avdeling, Ullevål sykehus, Oslo
  • Tom Christensen, spesialist i allmennmedisin, Sama legesenter, Harstad