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Smertelindring ved fødsel

Sist revidert:
Sist revidert av:


  • Ullensvang K et al. Smertelindring. Norsk gynekologisk forening Veileder i fødselshjelp (2020). ePub. ISBN 978-82-692382-0-4. Hentet 03. november 2021.
  1. Ullensvang K et al. Smertelindring. Norsk gynekologisk forening Veileder i fødselshjelp (2020). ePub. ISBN 978-82-692382-0-4. [hentet 24. januar 2021]. www.legeforeningen.no  
  2. Grant GJ, Hepner DL, Berghella V. Pharmacologic management of pain during labor and delivery. UpToDate, last reviewed Oct 2021. Accessed 03 Nov 2021 www.uptodate.com  
  3. Smith A, Laflamme E, Komanecky C. Pain Management in Labor. Am Fam Physician. 2021 Mar 15;103(6):355-364. PMID: 33719377.
  4. Klomp T, van Poppel M, Jones L, Lazet J, Di Nisio M, Lagro‐Janssen ALM. Inhaled analgesia for pain management in labour. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 9. Art. No.: CD009351. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009351.pub2. Accessed 03 November 2021. The Cochrane Library  
  5. Anim‐Somuah M, Smyth RMD, Cyna AM, Cuthbert A. Epidural versus non‐epidural or no analgesia for pain management in labour. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2018, Issue 5. Art. No.: CD000331. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000331.pub4. Accessed 03 November 2021. The Cochrane Library  
  6. Bjerk M, Kornør H, Reinar LM, Hval G. Pain relief for women in labour: a rapid review for patient decision aid [Smertelindring under fødsel: en hurtigoversikt for samvalgsverktøy Rapport]. Oslo: Folkehelseinstituttet, 2021. ISBN elektronisk: 978-82-8406-248-8 www.fhi.no  
  7. Weibel S, Jelting Y, Afshari A et al. Patient‐controlled analgesia with remifentanil versus alternative parenteral methods for pain management in labour. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2017, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD011989. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011989.pub2. Accessed 03 November 2021. The Cochrane Library  
  8. Schnabel A, Hahn N, Broscheit J, Muellenbach RM, Rieger L, Roewer N, et al. Remifentanil for labour analgesia: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2012;29(4):177-85. PubMed  
  9. Jones L, Othman M, Dowswell T, Alfirevic Z, Gates S, Newburn M, Jordan S, Lavender T, Neilson J. Pain management for women in labour: an overview of systematic reviews. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD009234. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009234.pub2 DOI  
  10. Kearns RJ, Shaw M, Gromski PS et al. Association of Epidural Analgesia in Women in Labor With Neonatal and Childhood Outcomes in a Population Cohort. JAMA Netw Open. 2021 Oct 1;4(10):e2131683. PMID: 34709386.
  11. Simmons SW, Dennis AT, Cyna AM, Richardson MG, Bright MR. Combined spinal‐epidural versus spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2019, Issue 10. Art. No.: CD008100. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008100.pub2. Accessed 03 November 2021. The Cochrane Library  
  12. Simmons SW, Taghizadeh N, Dennis AT, Hughes D, Cyna AM. Combined spinal-epidural versus epidural analgesia in labour. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 10. Art. No.: CD003401. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003401.pub3. DOI  
  13. Cluett ER, Burns E, Cuthbert A. Immersion in water during labour and birth. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2018, Issue 5. Art. No.: CD000111. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000111.pub4. Accessed 03 November 2021. The Cochrane Library  
  14. Smith CA, Collins CT, Levett KM et al. Acupuncture or acupressure for pain management during labour. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2020, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD009232. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009232.pub2. Accessed 03 November 2021. The Cochrane Library  
  15. Dowswell T, Bedwell C, Lavender T, Neilson JP. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for pain management in labour. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD007214. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007214.pub2. DOI  
  16. Derry S, Straube S, Moore RA, Hancock H, Collins SL. Intracutaneous or subcutaneous sterile water injection compared with blinded controls for pain management in labour. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD009107. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009107.pub2. Accessed 03 November 2021. The Cochrane Library  
  17. Smith CA, Levett KM, Collins CT, Armour M, Dahlen HG, Suganuma M. Relaxation techniques for pain management in labour. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2018, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD009514. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009514.pub2 DOI  
  • Silje Folven Barlindhaug, spesialist i allmennmedisin, redaktør NEL

Tidligere fagmedarbeidere

  • Vegard Dahl, overlege, Anestesiavdelingen, Bærum sykehus
  • Thomas Bergholt, klinisk forskningslektor, overlæge, phd, Gynækologisk Obstetrisk afdeling, Hillerød Hospital, Københavns Universitet (Lægehåndbogen)