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Sist oppdatert: Sist revidert:
Sist revidert av:

  1. Reamy BV, Derby R, Bunt CW. Common tongue conditions in primary care. Am Fam Physician 2010; 81: 627-34. American Family Physician  
  2. Shulman JD, Beach MM, Rivera-Hidalgo F. The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in U.S. adults: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. J Am Dent Assoc 2004; 135: 1279-86. PubMed  
  3. Byrd JA, Bruce AJ, Rogers RS III. Glossitis and other tongue disorders. Dermatol Clin 2003; 21: 123-34. PubMed  
  4. Gonsalves WC, Chi AC, Neville BW. Common oral lesions: Part I. Superficial mucosal lesions. Am Fam Physician 2007; 75: 501-7. American Family Physician  
  5. Pastore L, Carroccio A, Compilato D, Panzarella V, Serpico R, Lo Muzio L. Oral manifestations of celiac disease. J Clin Gastroenterol 2008; 42: 224-32. PubMed  
  6. Robinson AN, Loh JSP. Atrophic Glossitis. N Engl J Med. 2019 Oct 17;381(16):1568. PMID: 31618542. PubMed  
  7. Bakshi SS. Fissured tongue. Cleve Clin J Med. 2019 Nov;86(11):714. PMID: 31710590. PubMed  
  8. Shulman JD, Carpenter WM. Prevalence and risk factors associated with geographic tongue among US adults. Oral Dis 2006; 12: 381-6. PubMed  
  9. Ogueta C I, Ramírez P M, Jiménez O C, Cifuentes M M. Geographic Tongue: What a Dermatologist Should Know. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2019 Jun;110(5):341-346. PMID: 31005233. PubMed  
  10. Jainkittivong A, Langlais RP. Geographic tongue: clinical characteristics of 188 cases. J Contemp Dent Pract 2005; 6: 123-35. PubMed  
  11. Gurvits GE, Tan A. Black hairy tongue syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 2014 Aug 21;20(31):10845-50. PMID: 25152586 PubMed  
  12. McGrath EE, Bardsley P, Basran G. Black hairy tongue: what is your call? CMAJ. 2008; 178: 1137-8. PubMed  
  13. Mosca NG, Rose Hathorn A. HIV-positive patients: dental management considerations. Dent Clin North Am 2006; 50: 635-57, viii.
  14. Thongprasom K, Carrozzo M, Furness S, Lodi G. Interventions for treating oral lichen planus. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev 2011, Issue 7. Art. No.: CD001168. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001168.pub2. DOI  
  15. Napier SS, Speight PM. Natural history of potentially malignant oral lesions and conditions: an overview of the literature. J Oral Pathol Med 2008; 37: 1-10. PubMed  
  16. Lee JJ, Hung HC, Cheng SJ, et al. Carcinoma and dysplasia in oral leukoplakias in Taiwan: prevalence and risk factors. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2006; 101: 472-80. PubMed  
  17. Sherin N, Simi T, Shameena P, Sudha S. Changing trends in oral cancer. Indian J Cancer 2008; 45: 93-6. PubMed  
  18. Jones AS, Rafferty M, Fenton JE, Jones TM, Husband DJ. Treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue base: irradiation, surgery, or palliation? Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2007; 116: 92-9. PubMed  
  19. Isaacson GC. Congenital anomalies of the jaw, mouth, oral cavity, and pharynx. UpToDate, last update Sept 14, 2015 www.uptodate.com  
  20. Kohorst JJ, Bruce AJ, Torgerson RR, et al. A population-based study of the incidence of burning mouth syndrome. Mayo Clin Proc 2014; 89: 1545-52. pmid:25176397 PubMed  
  21. Sun A, Wu KM, Wang YP, et al. Burning mouth syndrome: a review and update. J Oral Pathol Med 2013; 42:649. PubMed  
  22. McMillan R, Forssell H, Buchanan JAG, Glenny AM, Weldon JC, Zakrzewska JM. Interventions for treating burning mouth syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2016, Issue 11. Art. No.: CD002779. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002779.pub3. DOI  
  23. Nasjonal kompetansetjeneste for amming. Stramt tungebånd – Veileder for diagnostikk og behandling av stramt tungebånd hos spedbarn. Oslo: Oslo universitetssykehus, 2021
  24. Segal LM, Stephenson R, Dawes M, Feldman P. Prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of ankyloglossia: methodologic review. Can Fam Physician 2007; 53: 1027-33. PubMed  
  25. Haug AC, Markestad T, Tjora E, Moster D. Stramt tungebånd hos nyfødte. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2021. doi: 10.4045/tidsskr.21.0515 tidsskriftet.no  
  26. Emond A, Ingram J, Johnson D, et al. Randomised controlled trial of early frenotomy in breastfed infants with mild-moderate tongue-tie. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2013. PMID: 24249695 PubMed  
  27. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2010; 5: 17. Published online 2010 Jun 10. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-5-17 DOI  
  • Terje Johannessen, professor i allmennmedisin, Trondheim (tilpasning til NEL)