Hopp til hovedinnhold

Hamstringskade

Sist oppdatert: Sist revidert:
Sist revidert av:


Definisjon:
Strekkskade på baksiden av låret
Forekomst:
Hyppig forekommende idrettsskade, særlig innenfor "eksplosive" idretter
Symptomer:
Smerte og/eller svakhet i muskulaturen oppstår vanligvis brått på baksiden av låret, ofte i forbindelse med en eksplosiv bevegelse
Funn:
Isometrisk knefleksjon kan utløse smerte
Diagnostikk:
MR kan bekrefte diagnosen og avgjøre hvorvidt det dreier seg om en total seneruptur eller -avulsjon
Behandling:
Akuttbehandling etter RICE-prinsippet. Tålmodig og langvarig rehabilitering
  1. Chu SK, Rho ME. Hamstring Injuries in the Athlete: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Return to Play. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2016;15(3):184-190. PMID: 27172083 PubMed  
  2. Pombo M, Bradley JP. Proximal Hamstring Avulsion Injuries. Sports Health. 2009 May; 1(3): 261–264. . pmid:10.1177/1941738109332259
  3. Engebretsen AH, Myklebust G, Holme I, Engebretsen L, Bahr R. Intrinsic risk factors for hamstring injuries. Am J Sports Med 2010; published ahead of print March 24, 2010.
  4. Walden M, Hagglund M, Ekstrand J. UEFA Champions League study: a prospective study of injuries in professional football during the 2001-2002 season. Br J Sports Med 2005; 39: 542-6. PubMed  
  5. Askling CM, Tengvar M, Saartok T, Thorstensson A. Proximal hamstring strains of stretching type in different sports: injury situations, clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics, and return to sport. Am J Sports Med. 2008. PMID: 18448581 PubMed  
  6. Ekstrand J, Waldén M, Hägglund M. Hamstring injuries have increased by 4% annually in men's professional football, since 2001: a 13-year longitudinal analysis of the UEFA Elite Club injury study. Br J Sports Med. 2016 Jun. 50 (12):731-7. PMID: 26746908 PubMed  
  7. Danielsson A, Horvath A, Senorski C, et al. The mechanism of hamstring injuries - a systematic review. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2020;21(1):641. Published 2020 Sep 29. PMID: 32993700 PubMed  
  8. Sarimo J, Lempainen L, Mattila K, Orava S. Complete proximal hamstring avulsions: a series of 41 patients with operative treatment. Am J Sports Med 2008; 36: 1110-5. PubMed  
  9. Opar DA, Williams MD, Timmins RG, Dear NM, Shield AJ. Rate of torque and electromyographic development during anticipated eccentric contraction is lower in previously strained hamstrings. Am J Sports Med. 2013 Jan. 41 (1):116-25.
  10. Malliaropoulos N, Isinkaye T, Tsitas K, Maffulli N. Reinjury after acute posterior thigh muscle injuries in elite track and field athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2011 Feb. 39(2):304-10.
  11. Opar DA, Williams MD, Shield AJ. Hamstring strain injuries: factors that lead to injury and re-injury. Sports Med. 2012 Mar 1. 42(3):209-26.
  12. Sherry M. Examination and treatment of hamstring related injuries. Sports Health. 2012;4(2):107–114. PMID: 23016076 PubMed  
  13. van der Made AD, Tol JL, Reurink G, et al Potential hamstring injury blind spot: we need to raise awareness of proximal hamstring tendon avulsion injuries Br J Sports Med Published Online First: 02 November 2018. DOI: 10.1136/bjsports-2018-100063. DOI  
  14. Arner JW, McClincy MP, Bradley JP. Hamstring Injuries in Athletes: Evidence-based Treatment. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2019;27(23):868-877. PubMed  
  15. Mason DL, Dickens VA, Vail A. Rehabilitation for hamstring injuries. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD004575. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004575.pub3. DOI  
  16. Clark RA. Hamstring injuries: risk assessment and injury prevention. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2008; 37: 341-6. PubMed  
  17. Arnason A, Andersen TE, Holme I, Engebretsen L, Bahr R. Prevention of hamstring strains in elite soccer: an intervention study. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2008; 18: 40-48. PubMed  
  18. Engebretsen AH, Myklebust G, Holme I, Engebretsen L, Bahr R. Prevention of injuries among male soccer players: a prospective, randomized intervention study targeting players with previous injuries or reduced function. Am J Sports Med 2008; 36: 1052-60. PubMed  
  • Terje Johannessen, professor i allmennmedisin, Trondheim