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Cannabisavhengighet

Sist oppdatert: Sist revidert:
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  • Nasjonal kompetansetjeneste for tverrfaglig spesialisert rusbehandling (TSB) - nettside 
  1. Narkotika i Norge. Narkotikabruk i Norge. Folkehelseinstituttet. Sist oppdatert 04.02.2020. Siden lest 21.04.2020. www.fhi.no  
  2. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. World drug report 2012. June 2012
  3. Fattore L, Fratta W. Beyond THC: The new generation of cannabinoid designer drugs. Front Behav Neurosci 2011; 5: 60. pmid:22007163 PubMed  
  4. Vindenes V, Bramness JG, Bretteville-Jensen AL et al. Gir sterkere cannabis flere helseproblemer?. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2016; 136: 1736-38. pmid:27830910 PubMed  
  5. Bilgrei OR, Bretteville-Jensen AL. Syntetiske cannabinoider. Nettbasert marked og en virtuell ruskultiur. SIRUS-rapport 2/2013.
  6. Marcotte TD, Umlauf A, Grelotti DJ, et al. Driving Performance and Cannabis Users’ Perception of Safety A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Psychiatry 2022. pmid:35080588 PubMed  
  7. Department of Health, National Treatment Agency. Statistics from the National Drug Treatment Monitoring System (NDTMS) 1 april 2008-31 march 2009. NTA, 2009.
  8. Winstock AR, Ford C, Witton J. Assessment and management of cannabis use disorders in primary care. BMJ 2010; 340: c1571. BMJ (DOI)  
  9. Bahji A, Stephenson C, Tyo R, et al. Prevalence of Cannabis Withdrawal Symptoms Among People With Regular or Dependent Use of Cannabinoids A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Netw Open 2020. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.2370 DOI  
  10. Tuv SS, Strand MC, Karinen R et al. Syntetiske cannabinoider – effekt og forekomst. Tidsskr Nor Laegefor 2012; 132: 2285-8. pmid:23736196 PubMed  
  11. Copeland J, Frewen A, Elkins K. Management of cannabis use disorder and related issues. A clinician's guide. National Cannabis Prevention and Information Centre, 2009.
  12. McCambridge J, Strang J. The efficacy of single-session motivational interviewing in reducing drug consumption and preceptions of drug-related risk and harm among young people: results from a multi-site cluster randomised trial. Addiction 2008; 99: 39-52. PubMed  
  13. IS-2211 Nasjonal faglig retningslinje for avrusning fra rusmidler og vanedannende legemidler. Helsedirektoratet. Sist oppdatert 06.04.2016 helsedirektoratet.no  
  14. Nielsen S, Gowing L, Sabioni P, Le Foll B. Pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2019, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD008940. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008940.pub3. Accessed 29 October 2021. The Cochrane Library  
  15. Kornør H, Pedersen W, von Soest T, et al. Bruk av benzodiazepiner og cannabis blant unge voksne. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2010; 130: 928-31. Tidsskrift for Den norske legeforening  
  16. Helsedirektoratet (2021). Nasjonal veileder for vanedannende legemidler nettdokument. Oslo: Helsedirektoratet (sist faglig oppdatert 19. oktober 2021, lest 29. oktober 2021).
  17. Gray KM, Carpenter MJ, Baker NL, et al. A double-blind randomized controlled trial of N-acetylcysteine in cannabis-dependent adolescents. Am J Psychiatry 2012. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12010055 DOI  
  18. Mason BJ, Crean R, Goodell V, et al. A proof-of-concept randomized controlled study of gabapentin: effects on cannabis use, withdrawal and executive function deficits in cannabis-dependent adults. Neuropsychopharmacology 2012; 37: 1689-98. PubMed  
  19. Hortemo S. Prosedyre for behandling med medisinsk cannabis innenfor dagens regelverk. Legemiddelverket 2019. Sist oppdatert 30.01.2019. legemiddelverket.no  
  20. Ernst G, Kongsgaard UE. Bruk av cannabinoider i palliativ medisin. Tidsskr Nor Legerforen 2008; 128: 822-5. PubMed  
  21. Nordentoft M, Ege P, Erritzøe D, et al. Cannabis og sundhed. En rapport fra Vidensråd for forebyggelse 2015.
  22. Meier MH, Caspi A, Knodt AR, et al. Long-Term Cannabis Use and Cognitive Reserves and Hippocampal Volume in Midlife. Am J Psychiatry 2022. pmid:35255711 PubMed  
  23. Moore THM, Zammit S, Lingford-Hughes S, et al. Cannabis use and risk of psychotic or affective mental health outcomes: a systematic review. Lancet 2007; 370: 319-28. PubMed  
  24. Ringen PA, Vaskinn A, Sundet K, et al. Opposite relationships between cannabis use and neurocognitive functioning in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Psychol Med 2010; 40: 1337-47. pmid:19891810 PubMed  
  25. Gobbi G, Atkin T, Zytynski T et al. Association of Cannabis Use in Adolescence and Risk of Depression, Anxiety, and Suicidality in Young Adulthood A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry 2019. pmid:30758486 PubMed  
  26. Arkell TR, Vinckenbosch F, Kevin RC, et al. Effect of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Driving Performance A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2020; 324: 2177-86. pmid:33258890 PubMed  
  • Ingard Løge, spesialist allmennmedisin, redaktør NEL