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Opiatabstinens

Sist oppdatert: Sist revidert:
Sist revidert av:

Definisjon:
Opiatabstinens er symptomene som melder seg når vedvarende overstimulering av opiatreseptorer i hjernen reduseres eller opphører
Forekomst:
I Norge er det ca. 10.000 sprøytemisbrukere
Symptomer:
Abstinenssymptomer er rhinoré, tåreflod, magesmerter, diaré, brekninger, leggkramper, gåsehud, gjesping
Funn:
Tilstanden ofte preget av angst og uro, ev. utvidete pupiller
Diagnostikk:
Blodprøver tas for å kartlegge den medisinske tilstanden
Behandling:
Abstinensbehandling med buprenorfin eller metadon
  • Nasjonal kompetansetjeneste for tverrfaglig spesialisert rusbehandling (TSB) - nettside 
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  2. Olmedo R, Hoffman RS: Withdrawal syndromes. Emerg Med Clin North Am 2000; 18: 273-88. PubMed  
  3. Narkotikautløste dødsfall i 2017. Folkehelseinstituttet, publisert 12.12.2018. www.fhi.no  
  4. Shaygani S, Waal H. Behandling av opioid abstinens. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2009; 129: 114-5. Tidsskrift for Den norske legeforening  
  5. Amato L, Minozzi S, Davoli M, Vecchi S. Psychosocial and pharmacological treatments versus pharmacological treatments for opioid detoxification. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 9. Art. No.: CD005031. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005031.pub4. The Cochrane Library  
  6. Gowing L, Farrell MF, Ali R, White JM. Alpha2-adrenergic agonists for the management of opioid withdrawal. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD002024. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002024.pub4. DOI  
  7. Gowing L, Ali R, White JM. Opioid antagonists with minimal sedation for opioid withdrawal. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009; Issue 4: CD002021. Cochrane (DOI)  
  8. Dunn KE, Tompkins A, Bigelow GE, et al. Efficacy of tramadol extended release for opioid withdrawal. A randomized clinial trial. JAMA Psychiatry 2017. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.1838 DOI  
  9. Amato L, Davoli M, Minozzi S, Ferroni E, Ali R, Ferri M. Methadone at tapered doses for the management of opioid withdrawal. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD003409. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003409.pub4. DOI  
  10. Gowing L, Ali R, White JM. Buprenorphine for the management of opioid withdrawal. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD002025. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002025.pub4. DOI  
  11. Watts BV, Gottlieb DJ, Riblet NB, et al. Association of Medication Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder With Suicide Mortality. Am J Psychiatry 2022; 179: 298-304. pmid:35360916 PubMed  
  12. Nielsen S, Larance B, Degenhardt L, Gowing L, Kehler C, Lintzeris N. Opioid agonist treatment for pharmaceutical opioid dependent people. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2016, Issue 5. Art. No.: CD011117. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011117.pub2 DOI  
  13. Gowing L, Ali R, White JM. Opioid antagonists under heavy sedation or anaesthesia for opioid withdrawal. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD002022. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002022.pub3. DOI  
  14. National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence. NICE clinical guideline 52.. Drug misuse: opioid detoxification. National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence 2007.
  15. Day E, Ison J, Strang J. Inpatient versus other settings for detoxification for opioid dependence. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD004580. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004580.pub2. DOI  
  • Ingard Løge, spesialist allmennmedisin, Edda legesenter, 7030 Trondheim