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Sist revidert av:

  1. Wang Y, Shurtleff D. Probiotics: What You Need To Know. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Last Update August 2019. www.nccih.nih.gov  
  2. Wilkins T, Sequoia J. Probiotics for Gastrointestinal Conditions: A Summary of the Evidence. Am Fam Physician. 2017;96(3):170-178. PMID: 28762696 PubMed  
  3. Logan AC, Jacka FN, Prescott SL. Immune-microbiota interactions: dysbiosis as a global health issue. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2016;16(2):13. PubMed  
  4. Ricci A, Tagliacarne SC, Valsecchi C, et al. Probiotics and inflammatory bowel diseases. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2015;29(2 suppl 1):96–113. PMID: 26634595 PubMed  
  5. Khailova L, Baird CH, Rush AA, et al.. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG treatment improves intestinal permeability and modulates inflammatory response and homeostasis of spleen and colon in experimental model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Clin Nutr 2016; Oct 1: S0261-5614(16)31265-1. pmid:27745813 PubMed  
  6. Jones RJ, et al. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria with inhibitory activity against pathogens and spoilage organisms associated with fresh meat. Food Microbiol. 2008;25(2):228-234. PubMed  
  7. Soltani S, Hammami R, Cotter PD, et al. Bacteriocins as a new generation of antimicrobials: toxicity aspects and regulations. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2021;45(1):fuaa039. PMID: 32876664 PubMed  
  8. Dimidi E, Christodoulides S, Scott SM, Whelan K. Mechanisms of Action of Probiotics and the Gastrointestinal Microbiota on Gut Motility and Constipation. Adv Nutr. 2017;8(3):484-494. Published 2017 May 15. PMID: 28507013. PubMed  
  9. Monaghan TM, Robins A, Knox A, Sewell HF, Mahida YR. Circulating antibody and memory B-Cell responses to C. difficile toxins A and B in patients with C. difficile-associated diarrhoea, inflammatory bowel disease and cystic fibrosis. PLoS One. 2013;8(9):e74452. Published 2013 Sep 10. PMID: 24058568 PubMed  
  10. Haase S, Haghikia A, Wilck N, Müller DN, Linker RA. Impacts of microbiome metabolites on immune regulation and autoimmunity. Immunology. 2018;154(2):230-238. PubMed  
  11. Isolauri E, Sütas Y, Kankaanpää P et al. Probiotics: effects on immunity. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73(suppl 2):444S-50S.
  12. Miller LE, Lehtoranta L, Lehtinen MJ. The Effect of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis HN019 on Cellular Immune Function in Healthy Elderly Subjects: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2017;9(3):191. Published 2017 Feb 24. PMID: 28245559 PubMed  
  13. Sartor RB. Probiotics for gastrointestinal diseases. UpToDate, last updated Sep 01, 2020. www.uptodate.com  
  14. Huang H, Song L, Zhao W. Effects of probiotics for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis in adult women: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2014 Jun;289(6):1225-34. doi: 10.1007/s00404-013-3117-0. DOI  
  15. Ya W, Reifer C, Miller LE. Efficacy of vaginal probiotic capsules for recurrent bacterial vaginosis: a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2010; 203: 120. PubMed  
  16. Blaabjerg S, Artzi DM, Aabenhus R. Probiotics for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in outpatients—a systematic review and meta-analysis. Antibiotics. 2017;6(4).pii:E21. PMID: 29023420 PubMed  
  17. Olek A, Woynarowski M, Ahren IL, et al.. Efficacy and Safety of Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 9843 (LP299V) in the Prevention of Antibiotic-Associated Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Children-Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. J Pediatr 2017. pmid:28438377 PubMed  
  18. Davidson LE, Calderwood SB, Baron EL. Clostridium difficile and probiotics. UpToDate, last updated Apr 10, 2017 www.uptodate.com  
  19. McFarland LV, Goh S. Are probiotics and prebiotics effective in the prevention of travellers' diarrhea: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2019;27:11-19. PMID: 30278238 PubMed  
  20. Sazawal S, Hiremath G, Dhingra U, Malik P, Deb S, Black RE. Efficacy of probiotics in prevention of acute diarrhea: A meta-analysis of masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Lancet Infect Dis 2006; 6: 374-82. PubMed  
  21. Abraham BP, Quigley EMM. Probiotics in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2017;46(4):769-782. PubMed  
  22. Nguyen N, Zhang B, Holubar SD, et al. Treatment and prevention of pouchitis after ileal pouch‐anal anastomosis for chronic ulcerative colitis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2019, Issue 11. Art. No.: CD001176. Cochrane (DOI)  
  23. Lamont JT. Treatment regimens for Helicobacter pylori. UpToDate, last updated May 20, 2021. www.uptodate.com  
  24. Ford AC, Harris LA, Lacy BE, et al. Systematic review with meta-analysis: the efficacy of prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics and antibiotics in irritable bowel syndrome. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 2018;48(10):1044-1060. PMID: 30294792 PubMed  
  25. Drouault-Holowacz S, Bieuvelet S, Burckel A, et al.. A double blind randomized controlled trial of a probiotic combination in 100 patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 2008; 32(2): 147. pmid:18387426 PubMed  
  26. Levri KM, Ketvertis K, Deramo M, et al.. Do probiotics reduce adult lactose intolerance? A systematic review. J Fam Pract 2005; 54(7): 613. pmid:16009090 PubMed  
  27. Pimentel M. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: Management. UpToDate, last updated Feb 27, 2020. www.uptodate.com  
  28. West C, Prescott S. Prebiotics and probiotics for prevention of allergic disease. UpToDate, last updated Mar 16, 2021. www.uptodate.com  
  29. Makrgeorgou A, Leonardi-Bee J, Bath-Hextall FJ, et al. Probiotics for treating eczema. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Nov 21;11:CD006135. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006135.pub3. DOI  
  30. Losurdo G, Iannone A, Contaldo A, et al. . Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 in Ulcerative Colitis Treatment: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis 2015; Dec;24(4): 499-505. pmid:26697577 PubMed  
  • Peter D. Jost, spesialist allmennmedisin, redaktør NEL